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Quiz 1 Study Guide

Quiz 1 Study Guide - Psych 336L Quiz#1 Study Guide Concepts...

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Psych 336L Quiz #1 Study Guide – Concepts to know Temperament (and different theoretical interpretations) Temperament- infant and child’s behavioral style, primary pattern in reacting w/environment Easy temperament Child primarily positive, smiles easily, flexible, easily adaptable, quickly develops regular patterns like sleeping and eating Difficult temperament mostly negative, easily frustrated, slow to adapt to change, irregular patterns of eating and sleeping Slow to warm-up temperament Mildly negative when exposed to new stimuli but w/repeated exposure, gradually warms up and becomes more positive; in-between difficult and easy temperament What shapes temperament? Forces of nurture and nature Nature and nurture interact to facilitate some characteristics and suppress others Ie: infants are born with innate tendencies that can be reinforced, channeled, or frustrated by parents Parents adapt to activity level of child and child adapts to parent’s expectations and constraints Culture and Society Goodness of Fit- degree to which child’s temperament and environment are compatible or complimentary to each other Ie: sometimes parents that are extremely calm don’t interact w/ child that’s highly active Ie: How does a highly active/independent child fare in a collectivist nation? Temperament changes over time Temperament are influenced by numerous factors through lifetime which bring about changes (not consistent over time) People learn to control how they express their temperaments Child’s behavioral output therefore might not reflect their true internal temperament Buss and Plomin’s Aspects of Temperament Emotionality: strength of emotion reaction to situation Activity: tempo/vigor of child’s movements Sociability: preference for being with people Behavioral Inhibition: tendency to approach or avoid unfamiliar people/situations Rothbart’s Temperament Dimensions for Infants and Children Questionnaire of 96 items, assessing temperament, asked parents to rate certain temperaments of their child in past week from always to never Her studies found that activity level, smiling, and laughter were the most consistent over time Kagan’s Work with Shy Children Exposed 16 week infants with strong odors, unfamiliar voices, bright colored toys He suggested that certain children had a genetic predisposition to shyness Those who weren’t affected had extremely high arousal thresholds may cause them to seek intense or dangerous activities in the future
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Attachment theories Attachment- emotional tie between persons that endures across time and space John Bowlby’s Ethological Theory Premise: attachment emerges from a system of traits and behaviors that infants develop over time in order to increase their survival skills 4 stages to infant attachment: Orientation without Discrimination
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