Group Think.pdf - Quick thinking Add 1 5 2 4 3 3 4 2 5 1...

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Unformatted text preview: Quick thinking Add 1+5 ? 2+4 ? 3+3 ? 4+2 ? 5+1 ? Think of a vegetable — Where you thinking of a Carrot ? Add these — What is: 2+2? 4+4? 8+8? 16+16? Pick a number — Quick! — Pick a number between 12 and 5. — Was your answer 7? Leadership Assumption — People follow leaders — Leadership can motivate people — HiPPO approach ? — Highest Paid Persons Opinion Creativity and leadership — Lone nut or leader? — First followers or early adapters — How to create a trend or movement — Book - The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference (ISBN 0-316-31696-2) is a book by Malcolm Gladwell, first published by Little Brown in 2000. — How do we get a project started ? Leadership — Dancing guy video - here Leadership and early adopters Video Takeaways — Leadership is overrated — Followers are important (early adopters) — Tipping point – momentum — Need to engage the movement — Cant all be mad inventors — Find a leader and follow them — Business model as important as the idea What is group think? — Groupthink, a term coined by social psychologist Irving Janis (1972) — Occurs when a group makes faulty decisions because group pressures lead to a deterioration of “mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment” Group Productivity — Research from Michael Diehl and Wolfgang Stroebe demonstrated that groups brainstorming together produce fewer ideas than individuals working separately. — "Productivity Loss in Idea-Generating Groups: Tracking Down the Blocking Effect". Journal of . Personality and Social Psychology 61 (3): 392–403. 1991 Consequences of Group think — Groups affected by groupthink ignore alternatives and tend to take irrational actions that dehumanize other groups. — A group is especially vulnerable to groupthink when — members are similar in background — when the group is insulated from outside opinions, — when there are no clear rules for decision making. Symptoms of group think — Members believe in the rightness of their cause and therefore ignore the ethical or moral consequences of their decisions. — Stereotyped views of out-groups – Negative views of “enemy” make effective responses to conflict seem unnecessary. Copyright Simon Williams 2010 Symptoms of group think — Direct pressure on dissenters –pressure not to express arguments against any of the ‘groups’ views. — Self-censorship – Doubts and deviations from the perceived group consensus are not expressed. — Collective rationalization – Members discount warnings and do not reconsider their assumptions. Symptoms of group think — Illusion of unanimity – The majority view and judgments are assumed to be unanimous. — Mindguards –protect the group and the leader from information that is problematic or contradictory to the group’s cohesiveness. Consequences — Incomplete survey of alternatives — Incomplete survey of objectives — Failure to examine risks of preferred choice — Failure to reappraise initially rejected alternatives — Poor information search — Selective bias in processing information at hand — Confirmation bias — Failure to work out contingency plans — Low probability of successful outcome Can we avoid group think? Question on groupthink — How can we prevent group think? How to prevent group think Decision experts have determined that groupthink may be prevented by adopting some of the following measures: — The leader should assign the role of critical evaluator to each member — The leader should avoid stating preferences and expectations at the outset — Each member of the group should routinely discuss the groups' deliberations with a trusted associate and report back to the group on the associate's reactions How to prevent group think II — One or more experts should be invited to each meeting on a staggered basis. The outside experts should be encouraged to challenge views of the members. — At least one articulate and knowledgeable member should be given the role of devil's advocate (to question assumptions and plans) — The leader should make sure that a sizeable block of time is set aside to survey warning signals from rivals; leader and group construct alternative scenarios of rivals' intentions. Group formation — Forming — Storming — Norming — Performing — The Forming – Storming – Norming – Performing model of group development was first proposed by Bruce Tuckman in 1965 Forming — the individual's behavior is driven by a desire to be accepted by the others — avoid controversy or conflict — Serious issues and feelings are avoided — people focus on being busy with routines, such as team organization, who does what, when to meet, Storming — Team members open up to each other and confront each other's ideas and perspectives. — In some cases storming can be resolved quickly. In others, the team never leaves this stage. — The maturity of some team members usually determines whether the team will ever move out of this stage. — Some team members will focus on minutiae to evade real issues. Norming — The team manages to have one goal — come to a mutual plan for the team at this stage. — Some may have to give up their own ideas and agree with others in order to make the team function. — In this stage, all team members take the responsibility and have the ambition to work for the success of the team's goals. Performing — It is possible for some teams to reach the performing — — — — stage. These high-performing teams are able to function as a unit as they find ways to get the job done smoothly and effectively without inappropriate conflict or the need for external supervision. motivated and knowledgeable. able to handle the decision-making process without supervision. Dissent is expected and allowed as long as it is channeled through means acceptable to the team. Facilitation — Keep discussion on track — Keep discussion on time — Create a safe environment to discuss Facilitation Tips and Tricks — Establish rules — Have a clear agenda — Understand roles — Open ended questions — Knowledgeable about topic — Energy and enthusiasm — Assist communication — Understand Personality types Cognitive Bias = self-fulfilling prophecy — My ideas are the best Ideas - Self-serving bias — Creative Bias -University of Pennsylvania study finds people are Biased against creative ideas — Confirmation Bias - is the tendency to search for, interpret, favor, and recall information in a way that confirms one's preexisting beliefs or hypotheses — Biased memory (selective memory) Moral reasoning — Consequentialist moral reasoning (normative ethics) — Right or Wrong depends on the result or consequence — Utilitarianism (Jeremy Bentham) — Categorical Moral reasoning (deontological ethics) — Absolute duties or rights — Intrinsic rights — Immanuel Kant (German Philosopher) Utilitarianism — Most widely applied in business — Greatest good for the greatest number — Maximize Utility — Balance happiness over suffering — Pleasure over pain Group name — Group Name - Animal — My Guess … Dragon, Unicorn, Panda, Kangaroo, Phoenix Summary — Janis, I.L. (1982). Groupthink: A psychological study of policy decisions and fiascos. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. — Kowert, P.A. (2002). Groupthink or deadlock: When do leaders learn from their advisors? Albany: Blackwell Publishing. — "Productivity Loss in Brainstorming Groups: Toward the Solution of a Riddle". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 53: 497–509. 1987. ...
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