Unformatted text preview: Quick thinking
Think of a vegetable
Where you thinking of a Carrot ? Add these
What is: 2+2?
16+16? Pick a number
Pick a number between 12 and 5. Was your answer 7? Leadership Assumption
People follow leaders
Leadership can motivate people
HiPPO approach ?
Highest Paid Persons Opinion Creativity and leadership
Lone nut or leader?
First followers or early adapters
How to create a trend or movement
Book - The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference (ISBN 0-316-31696-2) is a book
by Malcolm Gladwell, first published by Little Brown
How do we get a project started ? Leadership
Dancing guy video - here Leadership and early adopters Video Takeaways
Leadership is overrated
Followers are important (early adopters)
Tipping point – momentum
Need to engage the movement
Cant all be mad inventors
Find a leader and follow them
Business model as important as the idea What is group think?
Groupthink, a term coined by social psychologist Irving Janis (1972)
Occurs when a group makes faulty decisions because group pressures lead to a deterioration of
“mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral
judgment” Group Productivity
Research from Michael Diehl and Wolfgang Stroebe demonstrated that groups brainstorming together
produce fewer ideas than individuals working
separately. "Productivity Loss in Idea-Generating Groups: Tracking Down the Blocking Effect". Journal of . Personality and Social Psychology 61 (3): 392–403. 1991 Consequences of Group think
Groups affected by groupthink ignore alternatives and tend to take irrational actions that dehumanize
A group is especially vulnerable to groupthink when
members are similar in background
when the group is insulated from outside opinions,
when there are no clear rules for decision making. Symptoms of group think
Members believe in the rightness of their cause and therefore ignore the ethical or moral consequences
of their decisions.
Stereotyped views of out-groups – Negative views of “enemy” make effective responses to conflict seem
unnecessary. Copyright Simon Williams 2010 Symptoms of group think
Direct pressure on dissenters –pressure not to express arguments against any of the ‘groups’ views.
Self-censorship – Doubts and deviations from the perceived group consensus are not expressed.
Collective rationalization – Members discount warnings and do not reconsider their assumptions. Symptoms of group think
Illusion of unanimity – The majority view and judgments are assumed to be unanimous.
Mindguards –protect the group and the leader from information that is problematic or contradictory to the
group’s cohesiveness. Consequences
Incomplete survey of alternatives
Incomplete survey of objectives
Failure to examine risks of preferred choice
Failure to reappraise initially rejected alternatives
Poor information search
Selective bias in processing information at hand
Failure to work out contingency plans
Low probability of successful outcome Can we avoid group think? Question on groupthink
How can we prevent group think? How to prevent group think
Decision experts have determined that groupthink may be
prevented by adopting some of the following measures:
The leader should assign the role of critical evaluator to each member The leader should avoid stating preferences and expectations at the outset Each member of the group should routinely discuss the groups' deliberations with a trusted associate and report
back to the group on the associate's reactions How to prevent group think II
One or more experts should be invited to each meeting on a staggered basis. The outside experts should
be encouraged to challenge views of the members.
At least one articulate and knowledgeable member should be given the role of devil's advocate (to question
assumptions and plans)
The leader should make sure that a sizeable block of time is set aside to survey warning signals from rivals; leader
and group construct alternative scenarios of rivals'
intentions. Group formation Forming
The Forming – Storming – Norming – Performing model of group development was first proposed by
Bruce Tuckman in 1965 Forming
the individual's behavior is driven by a desire to be accepted by the others
avoid controversy or conflict
Serious issues and feelings are avoided
people focus on being busy with routines, such as team
organization, who does what, when to meet, Storming
Team members open up to each other and confront each other's ideas and perspectives.
In some cases storming can be resolved quickly. In
others, the team never leaves this stage.
The maturity of some team members usually
determines whether the team will ever move out of
Some team members will focus on minutiae to evade
real issues. Norming
The team manages to have one goal
come to a mutual plan for the team at this stage.
Some may have to give up their own ideas and agree with others in order to make the team function.
In this stage, all team members take the responsibility
and have the ambition to work for the success of the
team's goals. Performing
It is possible for some teams to reach the performing
These high-performing teams are able to function as a
unit as they find ways to get the job done smoothly and
effectively without inappropriate conflict or the need
for external supervision.
motivated and knowledgeable.
able to handle the decision-making process without
Dissent is expected and allowed as long as it is
channeled through means acceptable to the team. Facilitation
Keep discussion on track
Keep discussion on time
Create a safe environment to discuss Facilitation Tips and Tricks
Have a clear agenda
Open ended questions
Knowledgeable about topic
Energy and enthusiasm
Understand Personality types Cognitive Bias = self-fulfilling prophecy
My ideas are the best Ideas - Self-serving bias
Creative Bias -University of Pennsylvania study finds people are Biased against creative ideas
Confirmation Bias - is the tendency to search for, interpret, favor, and recall information in a way that
confirms one's preexisting beliefs or hypotheses
Biased memory (selective memory) Moral reasoning
Consequentialist moral reasoning (normative ethics)
Right or Wrong depends on the result or consequence
Utilitarianism (Jeremy Bentham) Categorical Moral reasoning (deontological ethics)
Absolute duties or rights
Immanuel Kant (German Philosopher) Utilitarianism Most widely applied in business
Greatest good for the greatest number
Balance happiness over suffering
Pleasure over pain Group name
Group Name - Animal
My Guess … Dragon, Unicorn, Panda, Kangaroo, Phoenix Summary
Janis, I.L. (1982). Groupthink: A psychological study of policy decisions and fiascos. Boston: Houghton
Kowert, P.A. (2002). Groupthink or deadlock: When do leaders learn from their advisors? Albany: Blackwell
"Productivity Loss in Brainstorming Groups: Toward the Solution of a Riddle". Journal of Personality and
Social Psychology 53: 497–509. 1987. ...
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