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Exam 1 - Introduction Parasitic Disease direct result of...

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Introduction 08/25/08 Parasitic Disease – direct result of parasite or related to host mechanisms Defense Mechanism – 3 lines of defense: - Non-Specific: o 1 st Barriers – skin, mucous membranes, secretions of skin and mucous membrane (enzymes – lysozyme) o 2 nd Barriers (Innate) – white blood cells, antimicrobial proteins, the inflammatory response - Specific o 3 rd line of defense: Lymphocytes – B and T cells Antibodies – produced by B cells (or plasma cells derived from B cells), that bind with a specific antigen o Immune Response – “memory” and can adapt and get better White Blood Cells - Neutrophils (Polymorphonuclear Cells – PMN’s) – 60%; 1 st on the scene - Monocytes (circulating in the blood) and macrophages (into tissue) – 4-7% o Become macrophages in the lymph nodes, spleen, and lungs - Eosinophils – 2% - big granules, stain red - Lymphocytes – 30% - big nucleus, small cytoplasm – B cell and T cell - Basophils – few <1% - many large granules; stain purple/blue - Natural Killer Cells (NK cells) Phagocytes - Phagocytosis – “cell eating” - Non-specific form of movement of particulate matter across cell membrane - Recognizes non-self - Engulfment of an invading particle within an invagination of the phagocyte’s cell membrane. The invagination becomes pinched off; the particle thus becomes enclosed within an intracellular vacuole and is destroyed when lysosomes, filled with digestive enzymes, fuse with the vacuole Neutrophils - “Professional Phagocyte” - Non-specific - Seek, destroy, die (“kamakazi cells”) Pluripotent Stem Cell Lymphoid Stem Cells Myeloid Stem Cells B Cells T Cells Erythrocytes Basophils Platelets Eosinophils Monocytes Neutrophils Phagocytes
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- 1 st on scene - Non-dividing - Granules contain enzymes - Non-functioning neutrophils are life-threatening 08/27/08 Macrophages - “Professional Phagocyte” - Killers/scavengers - Long lived - Can divide on site - They can also be antigen presenting cells, but their non-specific role is as a phagocyte - Kidney bean nucleus Eosinophils - 1-2% on average in a WBC count - Cytotoxic cell - Anti-parasitic activity - Parasites induce high numbers of eosinophils - Allergic responses - Charcot-leyden crystals – remnants of the cells after the eosinophils have discharged those granules after doing their job Natural Killer Cells – NK - Non-specific - Kills an infected cell by lysis of the cell membrane in the absence of an antibody - For tumor cells and infected cells - Derived from lymphocyte cell line Antimicrobial Proteins - Complement Factors o Activated by the alternative pathway o Important innate defense against the invasion by bacteria and some fungi - Cytokines – molecules released by cells when they are injured; non-specific defense o TNFα – endogenous pyrogen TNF – produced mainly by macrophages but alsos by activated T cells and natural killer cells o Interferons Released by a variety of eukaryotic cells in response to invasion by intracellular parasites o Interleukins Inflammatory Response - Non-specific response -
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