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Exam 2 - Exam 2 Apicomplexians I Spore-Forming Protozoa...

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Exam 2 Apicomplexians I – “Spore-Forming Protozoa - Phylum Apicomplexa characteristics o Parasites o Apical complex Consists of polar rind, conoid, rhoptry, micronemes, subpellicular tubules, and micropore All disappear after penetration of host cell – except micropore Found in sporozoite and merozoite stages o “Spore” stage involved in Transmission o Alternate asexual and sexual reproduction o Several pathogens in this group - Terms o Schizogony – multiple fission; where one becomes many; asexual reproduction in which multiple nuclear divisions take place followed by one simultaneous cytokinesis resulting in many daughter cells produced at once Merogony – multiple fission produces many daughter cells called merozoites (same thing as schizogony; one becomes many) o Merozoite – daughter cells produced from schizogony/merogony which will asexually reproduce to produce more merozoites o Meront – another term for the cell that undergoes merogony (schizogony) It will contain merozoites o Schizont – analogous term meaning the cell that undergoes schizogony, but cytokinesis is not complete o Gametogony – merozoites or trophozoites maturing and differentiating to form gametocysts by multiple fission; divisions will now produce gametes (sex cells) o Macrogametocyte – will produce female gamete(s) “ macrogametes o Microgametocyte – will produce male gametes “ microgametes” (only flagellated stage in this group); analogous to sperm o Zygote – a cell produced by fusion of macrogamete and microgamete o Oocyst – a zygote that has secreted a resistant outer hyaline membrane around itself Has resistant membrane around it (coccidian, e.e. Eimeria) Needed because sporogony must occur outside of the host Requires oxygen for sporogony to occur Cystic form that results from sporogony, may ( Eimeria) or may not ( Plasmodium) have hard, resistant membrane o Sporogony – multiple fission of zygote; aka a sporont o Sporocyst – stage of development of a sporozoan protozoan, usually within the oocyst
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o Sporozoite – daughter cell resulting from sporogony * BLUE ONES ARE COMMON TO ALL APICOMPLEXANS - Class Coccidia o Family Eimeriida Eimeria spp Isospora belli – pathogen Cyclospora cayetanesis pathogen o Family Cryptosporidiidae Cryptosporidium pavrum pathogen o Family Sarcocystidae Toxoplasma gondii pathogen Sarcocystis spp - Three phases of life cycle o Schizogony/merogony o Gametogony o Sporogony Occurs outside of host (usually) o Sporozoite – infective stage of parasite Contained within the sporocyst inside the oocyst - Oocyst Morphology o Picture of Eimeria oocyst (4 sporocysts with 2 sporozoites each) o Picture of Isospora oocyst (2 sporocysts with 4 sporozoites each) * Unsporulated oocysts: NOT infective!!
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