Cell Bio - Exam 1

Cell Bio - Exam 1 - Cell Biology Exam 1 Notes 08/25/08 The...

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Cell Biology – Exam 1 Notes 08/25/08 ‘The Cell Theory’ “All living things are composed of cells and their products.” (Scheiden and Schwann, German psychologists, 1838) “Omnis cellula a cellula” (German doctor and anatomist Rudolph Virchow, 1855.) o All cells come from cells o Before this, it was believed that cells formed from free-cell form, like the formation of ice crystals. (Spontaneous Generation) The Modern Cell Theory All living things are made up of cells. The cell is the structural and functional unit of all living things. All cells come from pre-existing cells by division (mitosis) Cells contain hereditary information which is passed from cell to cell through division. All cells are basically the same in chemical composition. All energy flow (metabolism and biochemistry) occurs within the cell. Biological Systems The activity of an organism as a whole is the sum of the activities and interactions of essentially independent cell units. The cell: “closest thing to an autonomous biological unit that exists.” (Lodish et. al., 4 th ed.) o “…is the fundamental unit of life.” (Lodish et al., 5 th and 6 th ed.) Evolution
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Eukaryotes and Archaea diverged from the Bacteria billions of years before they diverged from each other. o Thus, although prokaryotic, Archaea show many similarities to Eukaryotes. o Archaea are basic single-celled organisms. PROKARYOTES o Single-celled organisms that lack a true nucleus (aka protists) o Eubacteria Escherichia coli (E. Coli) Blue-green algae (now called cyanobacteria) These can be unicellular or consist of a chain of cells o Prokaryotic cells Consist of a single closed compartment that’s surrounded by a plasma membrane. Lacks a defined nucleus, and has a relatively simple internal organization PROKARYOTIC CELL: E. COLI (COMMON INTESTINAL BACTERIUM)
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Nucleoid (contains DNA) Bacterial DNA that’s not enclosed in a membrane, unlike the nucleus in eukaryotes. E. coli and some other bacteria are surrounded by 2 membranes by the periplasmic space. There are no thin cell walls situated directly external to the inner membrane. FIGURE HAND-DRAWN (PROKARYOTIC CELL) o Inner (plasma) membrane o Cell wall o Periplasmic space o Outer membrane o Septum o Archaea Single-celled microorganisms Separated from bacteria through extensive DNA analysis Cell membranes have chemical properties that differ dramatically from those of bacteria and eukaryotes Many grow in harsh environments Halophiles (high salt, high osmolarity)
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Thermoacidophiles (high temp) o Grow in hot sulfur springs 80C and a pH often below 2 Methanophiles (oxygen-deficient environments) o Combine H20 and CO2 to make CH4 o Model Organism: E. coli Bacteria Proteins involved in DNA, RNA, protein synthesis, metabolism Gene regulation Targets for new antibiotics Cell cycle Signaling
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This note was uploaded on 10/28/2008 for the course BIOL 3090 taught by Professor Kato during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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Cell Bio - Exam 1 - Cell Biology Exam 1 Notes 08/25/08 The...

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