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Sociology of Crime and Deviance

Sociology of Crime and Deviance - Sociology of Crime and...

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Sociology of Crime and Deviance 1/30/06- I missed first lecture, and since then have taken hand written notes. First, on a sheet of paper in the red spiral notebook, then on the printed out version of the PowerPoint. He was writing on the board something like: Psych -personality -IQ -Development/Cognition (ie. Poor impulse control, etc.) Biol -Genes (ie. Gene for risk taking, disobeying authority, etc.) -Hormones (testosterone, etc. reason for more boys) -Socio-biology (innate properties of the human species that favor crime and deviance, for example agression) Soc -Positivism (takes mechanistic view, there are hiddden laws, quantitative measures such as survery research) -learn -strain -control -Interpretation>>meaning, motivation. Mainstream Theories of Crime These theories: Are dominant in contemporary criminology Are often amenable to positivism Tend to focus on explaining the deviant individual- what is it about ppl who break the law compared to those who don’t? Fall into three “camps” Social Learning Perspectives Key Name: Edwin Sutherland- Key Text: “Principles of Criminology” 1939. – Differential Association Theory Argument: “differential association theory”- it’s all about who you hang out with. Differential association with diff types of people. Typically small group setting, delinquent youth focus, assoc. in small groups critical and had number of small implications: learning the method of crime, Rationalizatons and motivations for crime, a small group reinforces a particular worldview upon you. Makes you think crime is fair or fun. (ie. Teenage kids skateboarding on freezing cold day?) Learn: Techniques. Motivations. (Most crimes can be seen as risky or boring, but small group can change these interpretations) Influences: Chicago School, Tarde (1843-04).- Most influential sociolgy school, street corner gangs, hobos, and so on. Polish immigrant peasant. TARDE- A DUDE- THEORY OF IMITATION. There is a trickle down effect from high
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status groups to low status groups. Like fashion. There are other things that aref forms of imitation- languages. If someone enters small group setting, they will immitate the other people. Modification: Daniel Glaser “Differential Identification theory”- Said Sutherland was a bit mechanistic, but he says what is more important is the person subjectively identifying with the role model. Shifting away from Sutherland’s positivism to a situation looking at who people look up to, opens us up eventually to thinking about the role of the media (he didn’t talk about that). Role Models More… Recent elaboration: Ronald Akers.- He had psychology training, spruced up the theory by looking at reinforcement. What happens immediately after. Combining Skinner with Sutherland.
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