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HST 369 Notes Week 9 - HST 369 Notes Week 9 Mongol Invasion...

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HST 369 Notes – Week 9 Mongol Invasion and Aftermath 10/22/07 The Mongol Invasion and Japan and the Nature of Warfare The Mongol invasion of Japan - the Mongols controlled the largest land empire in human history Why Japan? Background - Mongols subjugated Korea (Koryo) in 1258 - Trying to conquer China (S. Song) Reasons - Japan is potential Song ally - Japan seen as a land of wealth Actions -Khubalai sends friendly letter but with veiled threat… The Japanese response - Court – unsure of how to respond; willing to be conciliatory, avoid war - Bakufu – more aggressive, unwilling to be conciliatory, will risk war Japanese Pre for 2 nd invasion - Recruit all comers - Build stone defensive wall - Plan pre-emptive strike on Korea - Appeal to the gods First – 1274 Second – 1281 2 nd Fleets – 1 from Korea, 1 from China 1279- China fell to the Mongols; the fleets were supposed to meet in early summer but the southern fleet got delayed - more boat to boat combat Problem of rewards – - no captured lands to distribute - warriors already in financial difficulties due to growing commercial economy and problem of divided land parcels - Hōjō family took over and people got pissed
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Religious Innovations 10/24/07 Discussion Questions: 1. In what ways does Hane distinguish between Heian and Kamakura Buddhism? What reasons does he give for the changes? 2. Be able to distinguish among the important figures of Kamakura Buddhism: Genshin, Honen, Shinran, Nichiren, and the n Zen sects. What innovations did they bring to Japanese Buddhism? Did their teaching pose any problems (potential or real)? 3. How does Goodwin define Kamakura Buddhism? What are the “old view” and “new view”? Why does she use kanjin as a way to explore religious and economic changes in medieval Japan? 4. What was mappo, and what was its significance to the people of medieval Japan? 5. LaFluer holds that Buddhism gained acceptance in medieval Japan because of its worldview. Be prepared to explain that view in broad terms. 6. What is the nihon ryoki and why did LaFleur choose it to illustrate the worldview? Reading Notes – Hane During the Kamakura era, Buddhism spread among the common people mappo – “decline of law and end of the world” Mahayana – Bodhisattvas; paradise – not enlightenment immediately. Genshin – monk during the Heian period. Wanted to propagate Amida Buddhism in Japan; wrote Essentials of Salvation; pure land sect eventually arose in the Kamakura period.
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