Review Sheet - Prokaryotes=no nucleus but DNA, plasma...

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Prokaryotes=no nucleus but DNA, plasma membrane, no membrane-enclosed organelles, unicellular,5,000 species so very diverse, simple and small, some have pili which are hairlike appendages that allow prokaryotes to stick to substrate, divide by binary fission, many use flagella for movement Eukaryotes=nucleus with DNA, membrane-enclosed organelles, less diverse than prokaryotes, plasma membrane, more complex and larger, probably originated as a community of prokaryotes, the membrane-enclosed organelles were created from membrane infolding in which the prokaryotic cell’s plasma membrane folded inwards to create the organelles except for the mitochondria and the chloroplasts which were created by endosymbiosis Bacteria=kind of prokaryote, unicellular, peptidoglycan in cell walls, distinguished from archaea on the basis of nucleotide sequences and other molecular and cellular forms, cocci are spherical shaped bacteria, bacilli are rod-shaped bacteria, pathogens are disease- causing agents, spirochetes are helical bacteria that are pathogens, cyanobacteria are the only prokaryotes with plant-like, oxygen-generating photosynthesis-generated the stromatolites which made the atmosphere aerobic (oxygen) Archaea=a lot like eukaryotes, no peptidoglycan in cell walls, thrive in extreme environments Protista=most are unicellular, are more complex than prokaryotes, most are aquatic, euglena are inhabitants of pond water with 1 or 2 flagella that extend from one end of the cell and many of them can absorb nutrients in the dark (act like heterotrophs), ciliates use cilia to move and feed and have 2 types of nuclei with 1 macronucleus that deals with normal cell activity and then multiple micronuclei that deal with its reproduction Protozoans=heterotrophic, eat bacteria and other protists Algae=autotrophic, synthesize their food by photosynthesis, a lot like plants, some algae have the same alternation of generation as plants, brown algae are seaweed and are multicellular, amoebas move and feed by means of pseudopodia, red algae are red because of an accessory pigment that masks the green color from the chlorophyll in the chloroplasts and are mostly soft-bodied (no cell wall), green algae are green and plants evolved from them Plantae=evolved from green algae and from a mycorrhizal mutualistic association between fungus and the roots of plants in which the plant can get food and the fungus can get nutrients and water -Alternation of generation of a typical plant: diploid sporophyte does meiosis to form haploid spores which does mitosis to form haploid gametophyte which does mitosis to form haploid gametes which goes through fertilization which forms a diploid zygote
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Review Sheet - Prokaryotes=no nucleus but DNA, plasma...

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