Prelim 1 Review - HD 115 Prelim 1 Study Guide Fall 2007...

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HD 115 Prelim 1 Study Guide Fall 2007 Berk, Ch 1, pp. 3-49: What is a theory? 1. A set of ideas that describes, explains or predicts behavior. Name and explain three basic issues in child development, on which most theories take a stand. 1. Continuous or Discontinuous? Continuous: build off old skills. 2. Does course development characterize all children? 3. Are genetic or environmental factors more important in influencing development? Nature vs. nurture What four factors has research on resiliency found seem to offer protection from stressful life events? 1. How were children viewed in medieval Europe? Children were vulnerable beings. Childhood was a distinct developmental period. How did John Locke and Jean Jacques Rousseau view children? Locke: tabula rasa: blank slate- character shaped by experience Rousseau: noble savages: natuarally endowed with a sense of right and wrong and an innate plan for orderly, healthy growth What did G. Stanley Hall and Arnold Gesell contribute to the study of child development? : Normative Approach: age related averages are computed to represent typical development. Describe the psychoanalytic theory, including its founder, as well as the five stages of development and three parts of the personality described in the theory. Psychoanalytic Perspective: Freud’s view of personality development- children move through stages- conflicts between social and biological drives. Psychosexual theory: how parents manage their childs sexual and aggressive drives.
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o Five Stages: Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latencty, Genital Id- driven by immediate gradification Ego- Driven by the reality principle. Sourrce of reason for what is acceptable to society Superego- conscience Psychosocial theory: individual is not only develop unique personality but also life attitudes and skills. Describe Erikson’s psychosocial theory (you do not need to know the stages). 1. Focuses more on social and less on sexual frames of development Behaviorism includes which three theories? Focuses on how the environment shapes behavior 1. Classical Conditioning: association between two stimuli (Pavlov) 2. Operant Conditioning: how consequences affect likelihood of repetition. (Skinner) 3. Social Learning theory: learns from watching (Bandura) What are the key aspects of Piaget’s cognitive-developmental theory? 1. Cognitive-Developmental Theory: children actively constructing knowledge as they explore the world. Sensormotor stage, preoperational stage, concrete operational What is the information processing approach? Suggests that cognitive development is a continuous process. What is ethology and what is a sensitive period? E: Concerned about the evolutionary development of a child. S: especially responsive to environmental influences
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Prelim 1 Review - HD 115 Prelim 1 Study Guide Fall 2007...

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