HD Vocabulary - HD Vocabulary Chapter 1 Theory and Research...

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HD Vocabulary: Chapter 1: Theory and Research in Child Development Locke’s tabula rasa : ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats to development- nurture Rosseau’s noble savage : view of child as naturally endowed with a sense of right and wrong and an innate plan for orderly, healthy growth-nature Freud’s Psychoanalytic perspective : view of personality development, in which children move through a series of stages in which they confront conflicts between biological drives and social expectations and the way that these conflicts are resolved determines psychological adjustment Freud’s Psychosexual theory : emphasizes that how parents manage children’s sexual and aggressive drives in the first few years of life is crucial for healthy personality development -oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital -discontinuous, one course, both nature and nurture Erikson’s Psychosocial theory : emphasizes that at each Freudian stage, individuals not only develop a unique personality but also acquire attitudes and skills that help them become active, contributing members of their society Behaviorism : an approach that regards directly observable events-stimuli and responses- as the appropriate focus of study and that views the development of behavior as taking place through classical and operant conditioning -continuous, multiple courses, nurture Bandura’s Social Learning Theory : approach that emphasizes the role of modeling, or observational learning in the development of behavior Piaget’s Cognitive-Developmental Theory : an approach that views children as actively constructing knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world and that regards cognitive development as taking place in stages -sensorimotor stage, preoperational stage, concrete operational stage, formal operational stage -discontinuous, one course, both nature and nurture Information Processing : an approach that views the human mind as a symbol- manipulating system through which information flows and that regards cognitive development as a continuous process -continuous, one course, both nature and nurture Ethology : an approach concerned with the adaptive, or survival, value of behavior and its evolutionary history -both continuous and discontinuous, one course, both nature and nurture Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory : children acquire the ways of thinking and behaving that make up a community’s culture through cooperative dialogues with more knowledgeable members of their society -both continuous and discontinuous, multiple courses, both nature and nurture Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory : views the child as developing within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment from immediate settings of family and school to broad cultural values and programs
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- Microsystem : the innermost level of the environment consisting of activities and interaction patterns in the child’s immediate surroundings (parents) - Mesosystem :
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