Pos Psych Prelim2 Study Guide

Pos Psych Prelim2 Study Guide - Pos Psych Prelim2 Study...

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Pos Psych Prelim2 Study Guide 04/10/2008 14:04:00 Virtue and Character:     Virtue and Character are traits that take time to develop and are not fixed at  birth (precociousness) and are influenced by other highly-variable traits: o Motivation and attitude o Hard-work Virtue and Character are traits that are shaped by the environment: o The Milgram Obedience Experiment o The Puppy Experiment Male Participants: 51% shocked the puppy Female Participants:  100% shocked the puppy Positive environments “build” virtue and character Possession of virtue and character is not an all or nothing phenomenon Optimism     Benefits of optimistic expectations are most clearly seen during times of  uncertainty Benefits of optimistic explanations are most clearly seen along the  dimensions of personal relevance, permanence, and pervasiveness Optimism as Expectation     : Dispositional Optimism :  someone who primarily is inclined to expect good  outcomes across a variety of situations Dispositional Pessimism :  someone who primarily is inclined to expect bad  outcomes across a variety of situations
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Uncertainty     :  When expectations count most o Uncertainty is unsettling o We are most comfortable when we think we know what’s going to  happen o But the outcome of most events in our lives is essentially unknown Optimistic Expectations Predict…     o Recovery from bypass surgery and return to work full time and resume  vigorous physical exercise o Health immune function (T-cells and natural killer cells) o Lower blood pressure Optimism as Explanation     : Explanatory Style :  your routine way of explaining bad events o We explain bad events along three dimensions: Personal  explanations for bad events determine our degree of  self-blame Permanence  addresses our expectations about how long bad  events will last Pervasiveness  deals with how all-consuming the event will be o When bad things happen…      Optimistic explanatory style:    Personal:       no self-blame; blame situational factors or  circumstances Permanence:       temporary Pervasiveness:       does not affect anything else in life; not  all-consuming
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Pessimistic explanatory style:    Personal:       blames self Permanence:       lasts a long time or is permanent Pervasiveness:       all-consuming; messes up everything o When good things happen…     Optimistic explanatory style:    Personal:       happened because of me; self-blame but in a  good way Permanence:       lasts a long time Pervasiveness:       positively affects everything else; all-
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Pos Psych Prelim2 Study Guide - Pos Psych Prelim2 Study...

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