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Unformatted text preview: Positive Psychology Review Guide (Prelim1) 21/09/2008 17:55:00 ← POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY ← 3 Missions of Positive Psychology before WWII: • cure mental illness • make the lives of people more productive and fulfilling • identify and nurture high talent ← ← psychology has been successful at curing mental illness (14 mental illnesses to date and created Veterans Administration in 1946 and NIMH in 1947) ← psychology has neglected to make the lives of people better and to nurture genius ← ← Humanistic Psychology: emphasizes the significance of individual needs and values, the capacity of change inherent in the individual, and the significance of conscious experience (Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow) ← ← Difference between Positive Psychology and Humanistic Psychology: • PP regards both the good and the bad about life as genuine whereas humanists generally assume that people are inherently good (aka PP both good and bad and humanists just good) • PP=empirical and scientific method whereas humanistic=skeptical of science ← ← Pillars of Positive Psychology: • Positive Experiences (past, present, future) • Positive Individual Traits (strengths and virtues) • Positive Institutions (positive communities that nurture positive individual traits like families, schools, religious groups, etc.) ← ← PLEASURE ← Pleasure is a subjective response to fulfilling bodily needs such as sexual gratification or salvation of hunger or thirst (as opposed to enjoyment which is a response to participating in certain activities that lead to personal growth and long-term happiness) ← ← Daniel Kahneman (Princeton) came up with: • The Experienced Self (Present) : do what feels good and avoid what feels bad o But people don’t simply maximize pleasant experiences and minimize unpleasant ones such as watching disturbing movies, giving up vacation days, spousal arguments, and vows of celibacy • The Remembered Self (Past) : how we evaluate past affective experiences o Peak-and-End Rule : people’s global evaluations of past affective episodes can be predicted by the affect experienced during the moment of peak affect intensity and the ending Cold Water Experiment : people immersed hand in cold water for 60 seconds in the short trial and then were asked to put hand in for 90 seconds while temperature of the cold water was raised one degree and when given the choice to repeat the study 81% chose to do the long trial again over the short one because the participants retained a more favorable memory of the long trial because it ended with a lower level of pain...
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- Fall '08
- Psychology, positive emotions, Missions of Positive Psychology, Positive Psychology and Humanistic Psychology