10 - 1 2 Emotional Development in Middle Childhood...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 2 Emotional Development in Middle Childhood Self-Conscious Emotions Pride Guilt Emotional Understanding Explain using internal states Understand mixed emotions Emotional Self-regulation Motivated by self-esteem and peer approval Emotional self-efficacy 3 Coping with Stress Problem-Centered Coping Used when situation is seen as changeable. Identify the difficulty. Decide what to do about it. Emotion-Centered Coping Used if problem-centered coping does not work. Situation is seen as unchangeable. Internal private control of distress. 4 Selman's Stages of Selman' Perspective Taking 5 Development of Distributive Justice Equality : 5-6 years Merit: 6-7 years Benevolence: around 8 years 6 Growing Moral Understandings Social Conventions: Conventions with vs. without a clear purpose Consider intentions and context of violations. Moral Rules: Consider intentions and context of violations Personal Matters: Recognizes areas of personal choice, relate to moral rules Recognize limits on choice 7 Moral Education Character Education Approach Emphasizes moral character 1 Identifies a common set of moral virtues Cognitive Developmental Approach Emphasizes moral judgment Identifies components of moral thinking Interpreting situation Reasoning Moral motivation Convictions-moral character 8 Peer Groups Formed from proximity, similarity Adopt similar dress and behavior Peer Culture Relational aggression Exclusion 9 Friendship in Middle Childhood Personal qualities, trust become important More selective in choosing friends Friendships can last several years Influence each other's behavior 10 Peer Acceptance Categories Popular Popular-prosocial Popular-antisocial Rejected Rejected-aggressive Rejected-withdrawn Controversial Neglected 11 Gender Typing in Middle Childhood Gender Stereotypes Extend stereotypes to include personalities and school subjects More flexible about behavior Gender Identity Boys more masculine Girls less feminine Cultural Factors 12 Family Relationships Parents Co-regulation 2 Siblings Rivalry Companionship and assistance 13 14 Types of Families Consequences of Parental Divorce Immediate Instability, conflict, drop in income Parental stress, disorganization Consequences affected by: age, temperament, sex. Long-Term Improved adjustment after 2 years Boys & children with difficult temperaments more likely to have problems. Father's involvement affects adjustment 15 Blended Families Mother-Stepfather Most frequent Boys usually adjust quickly Girls adapt less favorably Older children and adolescents of both sexes display more problems Father-Stepmother Often leads to reduced father-child contact Children in father's custody often react negatively Girls & stepmothers are slow to get along at first, but then there's a more positive interaction later. 16 Maternal Employment and Child Development Benefits Higher self-esteem Positive family and peer relations Fewer gender stereotypes Better grades More father involvement Drawbacks Less time for children Risk of ineffective parenting 17 Support for Working Parents Flexible schedules, job sharing Sick leave Involvement of other parent Equal pay and opportunities Quality child care 18 Fears and Anxieties in 3 Middle Childhood Fears of darkness, thunder, lightning, & supernatural beings still exist Fears of real elements of the environment School phobia 5-7 years: separation from home 11-13 years: particular aspects of school 19 Child Sexual Abuse Characteristics of victims: More often female Reported in middle childhood Characteristics of Abusers: Usually male Parent, or known by the parent 20 Child Sexual Abuse cont. Consequences Emotional reactions Physical symptoms Effects on behavior Prevention and treatment: Prevention: education Treatment: long-term therapy 21 Bullying Olweus (1978) was the first scientist to focus on the topic and to contribute scientific data to the literature. Olweus's definition (1993): "...a student is being bullied or victimized when he is exposed repeatedly and over time to negative actions on the part of one or more other students." 22 Bullying cont. The top three behaviors that were considered by teachers to be bullying were: Hitting, pushing, kicking Forcing people to do things they do not want to do Threatening people. 23 Six Characteristics that Families of Bullies Tend to Have 1994) (Oliver, Oaks, and Hoover, 24 25 26 Six characteristics cont. 3 Key Protective Factors Found in High-Risk Children (Selekman) Individual Resilient Factors Optimistic explanatory style Good sense of humor Self-efficacy Strong social skills Strong problem-solving skills Cognitive competence 4 Good-natured temperament Pronounced self-sufficiency Robustness Sense of coherence Perseverance Involvement on creative activities Intelligence Good management of emotions Keen sense of self-awareness 27 28 Resilient Family Factors Resilient Extra-familial Support Factors 5 ...
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