l2prj_eval_finan

l2prj_eval_finan - 1.040/1.401 Project Management Project...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: 1.040/1.401 Project Management Project Financing and Evaluation Nathaniel Osgood Center for Construction and Research & Education Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Massachusetts Institute of Technology Outline Session Objective Project Financing Public Private Project Contractor Additional issues Financial Evaluation Missing factors Time value of money Present value NPV & Discounted cash flow Simple Examples Formulae IRR Session Objective: To Understand The role of project financing Mechanisms for project financing Measures of project desirability Assumptions behind evaluation mechanisms Outline Session Objective Project Financing Public Private Project Contractor Additional issues Financial Evaluation Missing factors Time value of money Present value NPV & Discounted cash flow Simple Examples Formulae IRR Critical Role of Financing Makes projects possible Difficulty of Financing is a major driver towards alternate delivery methods Flexibility on owner financing Flexibility for contractor financing Has major impact on Riskiness of construction Claims Types of construction undertaken Prices offered by Contractors The Role of Project Financing: How Does Owner Finance a Project? Public Private "Project" (joint-venture) financing Public Financing Sources of funds General purpose or special-purpose bonds Tax revenues Capital grants subsidies International subsidized loans Public owners face restrictions (e.g. Bonding caps) Major motivation for public/private partnerships May group small construction projects to lower fixed financing costs Social benefits important justification User surplus, benefits to region, quality of life, unemployment relief Important consideration: Exemption from taxes MARR much lower (e.g. 10%), often standardized Private Financing Major mechanisms Debt Borrow money Retained earnings Bonds (revenue, fixed coupon, convertible, balloon,...) Equity Offering equity shares Stock Issuance e.g. in capital markets Must entice investors with sufficiently high rate of return (CAPM) Because higher costs and risks, require higher returns MARR varies per firm, often high (e.g. 20%) Private Owners w/Collateral Facility Distinct Financing Periods Short-term: Construction period Risky (and hence expensive!) Major costs Incomplete collateral (property may serve) Borrowed so owner can pay for construction Long-term Typically facility is collateral Pays for Operations Construction financing debts Typically much lower interest Often paid for by tax revenues, project revenues, etc. Loans often negotiated as a package Lenders Lenders for Owners Savings&Loan Investment banks REITs Insurance companies Innovative methods: "Borrow" from contractor Place burden of funding on contractor (BOT, Turnkey) Risk analysis typically done by lender Financial Structure & WACC WACC = Weighted average cost of capital Derives from the cost of equity (higher) and cost of debt (lower). Character (attitude towards repayment) Capacity (ability to repay) Collateral (assets that can be taken in lieu of payment) General Requirements Documentation Specifics Goal: To show that income can pay off mortgage debts Example documentation financial statements from owners (income,balance stmt) clear title to land with appropriate zoning design documents and cost estimates Retained earnings accounts reconciliation market research to demonstrate expected income detailed pro-forma that shows projected income and expenses in the life of the loan "Project" Financing I Investment in project thru special company Often joint venture between several parties For larger projects due to fixed cost to establish Benefits Off balance sheet (liabilities do not belong to parent) Limits risk More effective tax shields Reduced agency cost (direct investment in project) "Project" Financing II Examples Dulles Freeway Eurotunnel Eurodisney Bangkok highway Need capacity for independent operation Key drawback: Tensions among stakeholders Outline Session Objective Project Financing Public Private Project Contractor Additional issues Financial Evaluation Missing factors Time value of money Present value NPV & Discounted cash flow Simple Examples Formulae IRR Contractor Financing I Payment schedule Break out payments into components Often some compromise between contractor and owner Architect certifies progress Contractor applies for agreed-upon payments Often must cover deficit during construction (<<than total cost) Often schedule may not capture costs (equipment) Can be many months before payment received % Retainage standard (sometimes staggered; change @50%) Contractor Financing II Owner keeps eye out for Front-end loaded bids (discounting) Unbalanced bids Frequently borrow from Reserve Banks (Need to demonstrate low risk) Interaction with owners Some owners may assist in funding Help secure lower-priced loan for contractor Sometimes assist owners in funding! Contractor Financing III Owner often has more favorable terms for lending Collateral, size, stability, etc. 3-way agreements sometimes sought between Contractor Owner Bank Basically, bank pays contractor according to progress Payment request submitted with progress report monthly by contractor Owner then submits "draw request" to bank Problem: Difficult with traditional design-bid-build Contractor Funding IV: Schedule of Values Recent innovation Framework for payments Agreed upon in contract Often structure proposed by owner Should be checked by owner (fair-cost estimate) Often based on "Maserformat" cost breakdown structure Mimizes need for front-end loading via explicit payment for e.g. mobilization,etc. Contractor Loans: Additional Provisions Cost consultant (verify progress) Consultant for evaluation of construction plans Valuation of completed property Likelihood of successfully paying mortgage Value of collateral if seized Project monitoring Interests transcend project boundaries Outline Session Objective Project Financing Public Private Project Contractor Additional issues Financial Evaluation Missing factors Time value of money Present value NPV & Discounted cash flow Simple Examples Formulae IRR Latent Credit Many people lenders due to delays in payments Designers Contractors (AIA A101 provides some relief) Consultants CM Suppliers Temporary lowering of costs common in lean times Suppliers Contractors Manufacturers Taxes offer incentives for different types of activities Tax deductions for Depreciation Depreciation : "the process of recognizing the using up of an asset through wear and obsolescence and of subtracting capital expenses from the revenues that the asset generates over time in computing taxable income" Role of Taxes Mortgage Interest Targeted tax credits Personal Liability Despite presence in limited-liability corporations, individuals are often held responsible Outline Session Objective Project Financing Public Private Project Contractor Additional issues Financial Evaluation Missing factors Time value of money Present value NPV & Discounted cash flow Simple Examples Formulae IRR Opportunity Cost & The Time Value of Money If we assume money can always be invested in the bank (or some other reliable source) now to gain a return with interest later That as rational actors, we will never make an investment which we know to offer less money than we could get in the bank Then money in the present can be thought as of "equal worth" to a larger amount of money in the future Money in the future can be thought of as having an equal worth to a lesser "present value" of money Equivalence of Present Values Given a source of reliable investments, we are indifferent between any cash flows with the same present value they have "equal worth" Key: Costs/revenues coming to/from spare money This indifferences arises b/c we can convert one to the other with no extra expense e.g. Future to present cost: Deposit present value into bank now (deposit will grow to size of future value) Present to future cost: Borrow present value from bank now; pay off (future value) in future Present Value (Revenue) How is it that some future revenue r at time t has a "present value"? Answer: Given that we are sure that we will be gaining revenue r at time t, we can take and spend an immediate loan from the bank We choose size of this loan l so that at time t, the total size of the loan (including accrued interest) is r The revenue l is the present value of r. Present Value (Cost) How is it that some future cost c at time t has a "present value"? Answer: Given that we are sure that we will bear cost c at time t, we immediately deposit a sum of money x into the bank yielding a known return We choose size of deposit x so that at time t, the total size of the investment (including accrued interest) is c We can then pay off c at time t by using this money The size of the deposit (immediate cost) x is the present value of c. Notion of Net Present Value Suppose we had A collection (or stream) of costs and revenues in the future A certain source of borrowing/saving (at same rate) The net present value (NPV) is the sum of the present values for all of these costs and revenues Treat revenues as positive and costs as negative Understanding Net Present Value NPV (and PV) is relative to a borrowing/savings rate This is the rate for the "reliable source" NPV specifies the Value of the cash stream beyond what could be gained if the revenues were returns from investing the costs (at the appropriate times) in the "reliable source" "Reliable source" captures the opportunity cost against which gains are measured Amount that could "pocket" now while using the "reliable source" to pay all costs needed for the investment (e.g. via borrowing) Discounted Cash Flow Computing Present Value (PV) of costs & benefits involves successively discounting members of a cash flow stream This is because the value of borrowing or investment to/from the "reliable source" rises exponentially This notion is formalized through Choice of a discount rate In the absence of risk or inflation, this is just the interest rate of the "reliable source" (gain through opportunity costs) Applying the discounted cash flow method ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 10/29/2008 for the course PM 1040 taught by Professor Dr.nathanielosgood during the Spring '04 term at MIT.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online