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Running head: LITERATURE REVIEW Literature Review Amy Reuthinger Liberty University 1
LITERATURE REVIEW Abstract This paper includes information and researched used for a comprehensive qualitative research case study. Each article is relevant to the topic of parental involvement in schools, and, in general, the literature seems to indicate that parental involvement increases overall academic performance in schools. However, as a whole, parental involvement is lacking in schools. The paper discusses key terms and reoccurring themes that are related to the topic and are found in the articles. Keywords: parental involvement in schools, parent-teacher communication, mutual respect, student performance 2
LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction There are many students that might never reach their potential because of a lack of parental involvement in day to day schooling and activities. While a teacher can be a great support system and mentor, the student needs the consistent affirmation of a loving parental figure. Lack of parental involvement spans over every socioeconomic level and age of student. While there are many schools where parents are involved with their students, there are even more schools where parental involvement is hard to come by. Every student has someone who has been deemed a guardian over them, whether it be a biological parent, extended family member, or even foster care. That guardian has the responsibility to provide for the student and encourage the student as they go through life, whether it is in the classroom or just a day to day activity. Parents are a child’s teacher from when they are born, and the teachings should not end just because the child has a new teacher in a school setting. In many school districts, schools are struggling to get parents to volunteer for various class parties, field trips, and fundraisers, let alone working with the student at home. Teachers cannot do it all alone, being as teachers can have up to thirty students at a time. If teachers do not have enough help with parties and field trips, then the students miss out because they cannot be done. The teachers also have different students from various backgrounds and sometimes do not know how to best help them. Also, when the teachers are teaching at middle school or high school levels, they could have up to two hundred students in one school year. What is parental involvement? Parental involvement can be defined in many different ways. Wilder (2014) defines it in two distinct ways, with the first being the expectations that the parents have for their children in school, and the second one is simply help on homework. Children will usually only work to the standard that is either required or asked of them. If the 3
LITERATURE REVIEW parent has low expectations for the student, then the student is going to perform more poorly than a student whose parents had high expectations of them. It is important for parents to realize

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