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Unformatted text preview: Detailed Estimation and Pumpstation Overview Nathaniel Osgood 3/3/2004 Announcements TP2 Due Date: March 15 PS4 out tonight Due March 19 Team project Recording of recitation Pietroforte Lecture Important lecture will link to PS 4 Seminars March 16th & 22nd Recall the Estimation Phases Detailed Estimates Methodology After most or all of the detail design work is complete, approximate estimates are supplemented by detailed estimates Stage 1: Quantity takeoff Measurement of material & Labor quantities Quantities usually recapped by trade for control reasons Stage 2: Direct Cost contribution [Quantity] x [Unit Costs] = Estimated direct cost of construction Notes on Detailed Estimates Have differing ranges of uncertainties Distributions typically asymmetric More an art than a science or bookkeeping Detailed quantitative estimates possible but ignore important qualitative factors Wealth of trade-specific and method-specific detail complexity Frequently depends heavily on subcontractor estimates (opaque quotes) Important General Lesson Precision in detailed estimated does not mean accuracy! Two types of complexity at issue Detail complexity (myriad components required) System complexity (dynamic interactions, etc.) Always consider: What are assumptions behind the estimate? What factors are being ignored? How might these factors change the estimate? Cost Classification Labor Direct Cost Cost Material Cost Equipment Cost ST&S Expenses Interest Indirect Cost ("Overhead") on loans Trailer rental Office costs AC/heat Planning&logistics Supervision Overhead Costs Project Overhead Project specific Management staff, Utilities, Supplies, Engineering, Tests, Drawings, Rents, Permits, Insurance Can and should be estimated directly Can be quite uncertain (mgmt sub. quality, time, etc.) Firm Overhead General office Salaries, office rent, utilities, insurance, taxes, shops/storage yards, other expenses Hard to estimate; often use % multiplier Sometimes distinction unclear (e.g. lumpy central-office investments) Project Organization Estimation Introduction Conceptual Estimation Cost indices Cost-capacity factors Component ratios Parameter costs Detailed Estimation Quantity Takeoff Labor Cost Estimation Probabilistic methods Fair-Cost Estimates Prepared from the actual bid documents provided to the bidders (before award) Used by owner's representative to evaluate changes (after award) May use RS Means or other sources No lump-sum subcontract quotations Somewhat diff. disaggregation than bid May be simplified number of line items May be more detailed in certain breakdowns (related to subcontractor work) Primary basis for measuring job progress, for scheduling and for cost control. Contractor's Bid Estimate Low enough to obtain the work, yet high enough to make profit Often relies on Historical productivity data for company Intuition on speed of movement Quantity takeoff for most important items Sometimes less detailed than fair-cost estimates - subcontractors from 30% to 80% of the project Is estimating a streamlined process? A look at bids received for a typical project in a competitive area will sometimes show more than 50% difference between the low and the high bidders Definitive Estimates There comes a time when a definitive estimate can be prepared that will forecast the final project cost with little margin for error... This error can be minimized through the proper addition of an evaluated contingency Four categories for purposes of reviewing definitive estimates: Traditional Design-Build Professional CM Unit-price Definitive Estimates - Traditional Lump-sum - definitive estimate = low bidder's quotation + evaluated contingency Fast track guaranteed maximum price, costplus-a-fee Definitive estimate will need Detailed project and specifications Firm material quotations Subcontractor quotes Prices for major equipment Definitive Estimates Design-Build Lump-sum, guaranteed maximum price, costplus-a-fee Lump-sum can be misleading to an unknowledgeable owner. The cost is known but the facility that is going to be delivered is unknown In guaranteed maximum price and cost-plus-a-fee contracts the definite estimates can be obtained earlier if compared to the traditional approach because one entity is performing both design and construction Definitive Estimates - CM The definitive estimate can be accurately prepared about the same time as the guaranteed-maximum or cost-plus-a-fee option under traditional approach Examples show that is possible to develop definitive estimates after the detailed design is about 95% complete. Definitive Estimates Unit Price Unit-Price Projects: Usually heavy construction projects like dams, tunnels, highways, and airports - Prices constants while quantities vary within limits inherent in the nature of work. Quantities may overrun or underrun owing to a number of potential causes such as additional foundation, excavation to solid rock, poor ground conditions, etc. Without reliable geological information the final cost may not be known accurately until the end of the project Project Organization Estimation Introduction Conceptual Estimation Cost indices Cost-capacity factors Component ratios Parameter costs Detailed Estimation Quantity Takeoff Labor Cost Estimation Probabilistic methods Quantity Takeoff Really requires thinking! Systematic identification of quantities of materials and work required Key features sought Exhaustive Mutually exclusive Used to calculate several factors Amount of material (e.g. concrete CY) Equipment utilization Labor Breakdown often uses CSI or WBS taxonomies Quantity Takeoff Subtleties I Elements required by construction method E.g. construction joints Reuse of materials and equipment influenced by Specification Schedule (itself being estimated, adjusted) Space (can complicate or prevent concurrency e.g. adequate space for 2 cranes? 2 people?) Must estimate both Cost & Time Sometimes requires iteration Hidden dependencies of cost on schedule Quantity Takeoff Subtleties II Division between different parties Easy to think other party taking care of particular elements E.g. think excavation cost is included in unit cost of piping Choice of construction approach has big impact Estimation of labor costs particularly tricky Prices: In United States, highly detail intensive Productivity: Many qualitative components Impact of Type I vs Type II error Project Organization Estimation Introduction Conceptual Estimation Cost indices Cost-capacity factors Component ratios Parameter costs Detailed Estimation Quantity Takeoff Labor Cost Estimation Probabilistic methods Labor Estimation Most subtle, tricky For easy transferability , should separate into Q: Unit (Quantity) P: $/hour (Labor Price per hour) W: hour/unit (Labor hours per unit -- productivity) Total cost $ = Q * P * W Labor Price Estimation (P) Components Wages (varies by area, jurisdiction, seniority, ...) Insurance (varies w/contractor record, work type) Social security (FICA; by employer, employee) Unemployment tax (state) Fringe benefits (apprenticeship, vacation, health...) Wage premiums Wage Premiums For shift work Sometimes adjust hours Overtime 1.5-3x for overtime Some crafts paid overtime if over 32 hours Hazardous/arduous work Work on swinging scaffold Larger crane Underground work Further Issues Complicated, heterogeneous rules, exceptions throughout US complicate estimation Probably more complicated than for other industries Problem particularly acute for union shops Frequently combine into crew-based estimate Reason about price of standard crew Helps factor in labor rules Quite substantial variation between contractors in how handle Labor Productivity Estimation (W) Difficult but critical High importance of qualitative factors (environment, morale, fatigue, learning, etc) The primary means by which to control labor costs Historical data available Department of Labor, professional orgs, state govs..) Productivity Considerations Considerations Location of jobsite (local skill base, jurisdiction rules) Learning curves Work schedule (overtime, shift work) Weather Elaborate work-arounds, costs Environment Location on jobsite, noise, proximity to matereials Management style Worksite rules Common Productivity Variations Productivity Job Factors for Comparable Installations Building Construction Nonworking supervision Craft skill Job conditions Work conditions Shift work Total building range 1.0 to 1.15 1.0 to 1.20 1.0 to 1.20 1.0 to 1.20 1.0 to 1.20 1.0 to 2.00 1.25 to 2.25 1.50 to 3.00 1.25 to 3.00 2.25 to 4.00 3.00 to 5.00 2.25 to 5.00 Industrial Construction Light industrial Heavy industrial Total industrial range Nuclear Power Plants Pre-Three Mile Island Post-Three Mile Island Total nuclear power plant range Learning Curves Productivity Effects of Overtime Project Organization Award Methods General points Bidding Negotiation Lifecycle Costing Estimation Introduction Conceptual Estimation Cost indices Cost-capacity factors Component ratios Parameter costs Detailed Estimation Quantity Takeoff Labor Cost Estimation Probabilistic methods Successive Estimation Top-down approach to rapid estimation Identify Expected value and variance Irreducible uncertainty due to external factors Overall variance is of variance of components Break down highest variance items More detail lowers variance Result: Frequently only have to estimate small portions of total project to get good estimate Range Estimation Estimate Low-Mean-High of bids will receive Estimate range of uncertainty for entire project based on this Can use to reason about confidence intervals Quantity Take-off Assignment 3: Introduction Assignment 3: Example Construction Drawings Construction Methods Assignment 2: What to measure? Formwork (Square Feet) Formwork Add-on's: Anchor Bolts Joint Filler Chamfer PVC waterstop Construction Joints (qty) (Linear Feet) (Linear Feet) (Linear Feet) (Linear Feet) For the Wet Well Floor For the Operating Floor For Internal walls and partitions How is it constructed? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Install Formwork Install rebar Pour concrete Finish it (small slopes etc.) Wait & Repeat (construction joints) Uninstall formwork Point & Patch, Rub Think from bottom to top GRAVITY RULES! Construction Drawings Navigation Drawing Title Cross Section Detail Take-off Template Characterize each object you measure (Description) Specify which plane you measure Specify dimensions of the ENTIRE object Try to keep North consistent Formwork b Total (SF) Sum b c b a c a c d a f Sketch 1 Sketch 2 Sketch 3 Qty or d Units Item Description Drawings Sketch a b c Quantity Deriver Signoff 1 Invert Edge Form Sum Example: Define an object Item Description 1 a b c d Invert Edge Form Invert Slab (bottom) Invert Slab (W & E sides) Invert Slab (N & S sides) Example: Find relevant drawings Example: Define Planes & Dimensions Sides of Invert Slab S-1101, S-1105 1 44.00 6.00 54.50 SF 1,182.0 Casting a concrete slab on grade Sequence: 1. 2. 3. 4. (You are not responsible for this formwork in the assignment) 5. 6. 7. Form and edges Reinforcement and embedment Striking off or straightedge Floating (if smoother surface is needed) Control joints Troweling (if very smooth surface is needed) Curing (under damp conditions) Casting a concrete wall Sequence: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Coated form (one side only) Reinforcing Ties and inspection Coated form (2nd side) Placing concrete Curing Stripping of formwork and snapping off ties Point and Patch Rub ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/29/2008 for the course PM 1040 taught by Professor Dr.nathanielosgood during the Spring '04 term at MIT.

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