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l15eva_basicntrl - EVA(C/SCSC and Basics of Project Control...

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Unformatted text preview: EVA (C/SCSC) and Basics of Project Control Nathaniel Osgood 4/7/2004 Topics Monitoring cont'd EVA (C/SCSC) Definitions and examples Forecasting Project Control General Performance-adjustments Target Adjustments Problem diagnosis Recall: Earned Value Approach (Cost/Schedule Control Systems Criteria) Definitions Integrating cost, schedule, and work performed by ascribing monetary values to each. Budgeted Cost of Work Scheduled (BCWS, $) ("Earned value of work accomplished") the value of work scheduled to be accomplished in a given period of time. Actual Cost of Work Performed (ACWP, $): the costs actually incurred in accomplishing the work performed within the control time. Budgeted Cost of Work Performed (BCWP, $): the monetary value of the work actually performed within the control time (= Earned Value). Actual Time of Work Performed (ATWP, time) Schedule Time of Work Performed (STWP, time) Cost Variance Is project spending more or less money than anticipated for the work that I did? Cost Variance (CV = BCWP - ACWP) + (Underrun); - (Overrun); 0 (On Budget) Cost Index (CI = BCWP/ACWP) > 1 (Underrun); < 1 (Overrun); 1 (On Budget) Schedule Variance One metric for judging if project making is "progressing" faster or slower than expected More precisely: "How does the value of the work I have actually performed compare to the work I anticipated performing during this time?" "Progress" here is measured in value of the work ($) Calculated in $ -- but here this is a proxy for value Schedule Variance (SV = BCWP - BCWS) + (Ahead); - (Behind); 0 (On Schedule) Even if just slightly ahead/behind in time, may be large if working on very expensive component of project Schedule Index (SI = BCWP/BCWS) > 1 (Ahead); < 1 (Behind); 1 (On Schedule) Time Variance Is project spending more or less time than anticipated for the work that I did? Measured in units of time May be very close even if big difference in the resource spending Time Variance (TV = STWP - ATWP) + (Ahead); - (Delay); 0 (On Schedule) Time Index (TI = STWP / ATWP) i > 1 (Ahead); < 1 (Delay); 1 (On Schedule) Resource Flow Variance Compares how much expecting to spend during this timeframe with what actually spent regardless of how much work got done. Warning: Doesn't indicate bad or good. e.g. = if Going faster but more cheaply than expected Going slower but more expensively than expected Resource Flow Variance (RV = BCWS - ACWP) + (Underrun); - (Overrun); 0 (On Target) Resource Flow Index ACWP) (RI = BCWS / > 1 (Underrun); < 1 (Overrun); 1 (On Target) Earned Value Chart Example: Gantt Chart Schedule A B C D E F G ACTIVITY 0 5 10 15 WEEKS 20 25 Non Critical Path Activity Critical Path Activity Example: Traditional Reporting Example: Earned Value Reporting Example: Activity Analysis Example: Variances ACTIVITY BCWP - ACWP = CV A B E $ 1,500 - $ 1,500 = $ 0 $ 3,000 - $ 3,000 = $ 0 $ 1,628 - $ 2,900 = -$ 1,272 CUMULATIVE VARIANCE = -$ 1,272 ACTIVITY BCWP - BCWS = SV A B E $ 1,500 - $ 1,200 = $ 300 $ 3,000 - $ 3,000 = $ 0 $ 1,628 - $ 3,256 = -$ 1,628 CUMULATIVE VARIANCE = -$ 1,328 Variances II ACTIVITY A B E STWP - ATWP = TV 5-4=1 3 - 4= -1 2 - 4= -2 Cumulative Variance = -2 Example: Activity Indexes Activity A B E BCWP = SI BCWS 1,500 1,200 3,000 3,000 1,628 3,256 = 1.25 =1 = 0.5 BCWP = CI ACWP 1,500 1,500 3,000 3,000 1,628 2,900 =1 =1 = 0.56 Example: Project Indexes The Aggregate Cost Index is: SI = 1,500 + 3,000 + 1,628 1,200 + 3,000 + 3,256 = 0.82 CI = 1,500 + 3,000 + 1,628 1,500 + 3,000 + 2,900 = 0.83 Example: Earned Value Reporting Values (in Dollars) of BCWS, BCWP, and ACWP for Weeks 1-4 Week 1 Week 2 Activity BCWS BCWP ACWP BCWS BCWP ACWP BCWS A 300 500 500 300 500 500 300 B 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 E 814 300 814 814 400 686 814 2,114 1,800 2,314 2,114 1,900 2,186 2,114 Week 3 BCWP ACWP 300 300 500 500 500 1,000 1,300 1,800 BCWS 300 0 814 1,114 Week 4 BCWP ACWP 200 200 500 500 428 400 1,128 1,100 Example: Earned Value Analysis Example: Schedule and Cost Index Schedule Index for the Project 1.00 0.90 0.80 Schedule index, SI 0.70 0.85 0.88 0.79 0.82 Cost Index for the Project 1.00 0.90 0.80 0.70 Cost Index, CI 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.78 0.82 0.79 0.83 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.00 1 2 Week 3 4 0.00 1 2 Week 3 4 Example: Integrating CI and SI Topics Monitoring cont'd EVA (C/SCSC) Definitions and examples Forecasting Project Control General Performance-adjustments Target Adjustments Problem diagnosis Forecasting Performance Critical in the performance analysis process, since it can be used to identify future performance variances and design the project control process in advance of facing real performance problems Attempts to predict the conditions at a later time or the end of the project Typically made repeatedly on a regular basis throughout a project Forecasting Completion Dates Forecasted completion date = Current date + (Work remaining / Expected work rate) Expected work rate = Expected productivity* Workers Expected productivity = [Work accomplished / Workers] / Time spent Forecasting Total Costs Forecasted total cost = Cost spent + (Work remaining * Expected unit cost) Expected unit cost = Costs spent / Work accomplished Cost Updating Budget at Completion BAC = Sum BCWS on lower-level OBS BAC = Sum BCWS on lower-level WBS Work Remaining WR = BAC BCWP Estimate to Complete ETC = Update cost for Work remaining Estimate at Completion EAC = BAC - CV or BAC / CI EAC Original Estimate Approach Estimate at Completion: EAC = ACWP + ETC Estimate to Complete: ETC = BAC BCWP EAC = ACWP + (BAC - BCWP) EAC = BAC - (BCWP - ACWP) EAC = BAC - CV EAC Revise Estimate Approach ACWP / BCWP = 1 / CI ETC = WR * 1 / CI ETC = (BAC - BCWP) * 1 / CI EAC = ACWP + (BAC - BCWP) * 1 / CI EAC = ACWP + (BAC / CI) - (BCWP / CI) ACWP = BCWP / CI EAC = BAC / CI EAC = BAC * ACWP / BCWP Example (after a month) BCWS BCWP ACWP = $7,456 = $6,128 = $7,400 CV SV CI SI = $1,272 = $1,328 = 0.83 = 0.82 Original Estimate Approach EAC = ACWP + BAC - BCWP = BAC -CV = $31,000 - (- $1,272) = $32,272 Revised Estimate Approach EAC = BAC / CI = $31,000 / 0.83 = $37,349 Beware of Delays Financial, time indicators are necessary but not sufficient to alert to problems In most cases of serious problems and "normal" reporting, the problem may be very serious by the time that it is noticed in the formal reports Rapid qualitative judgment is often much more effective than delayed quantitative reporting Topics Monitoring cont'd EVA (C/SCSC) Definitions and examples Forecasting Project Control General Performance-adjustments Target Adjustments Problem diagnosis Project Control: Managing Risks Monitoring alerts us to when there's a problem Key elements of control Problem diagnosis (discussed later) Either Plan correction (often political process) Problem correction (often technical & managerial) All of the above must be undertaken rapidly to effectively control a project Need to see if they correct the problem and react accordingly Control without rapid monitoring highly handicapped Value of Flexibility Flexibility is primary defense against risk Planning too tightly may highly complicate control Already Discussed: Flexibility value to the owner (Expandability via clearspanning, larger # conduits, Flexibility in construction is key during control Want enough "give" to change plans if necessary Usual tradeoff: Overoptimizing for cost can limit flexibility E.g. Equipment, materials, personnel Be careful on value engineering that limits flexibility! The Project Control Process Initial Targets Project Targets Performance Targets Forecasting Forecasted Performance Performance Test Performance Deficits and Surpluses Target Changes Measured Performance Error Signal Descriptors Error Signals Target-Driven Control Loop Performance-Driven Control Loop Control Actions Project Changes Project Performance Topics Monitoring cont'd EVA (C/SCSC) Definitions and examples Forecasting Project Control General Performance-adjustments Target Adjustments Problem diagnosis Performance-Driven Control Project Targets Performance Targets Forecasting Forecasted Performance Performance Test Performance Deficits and Surpluses Measured Performance Error Signal Descriptors Error Signals Performance-Driven Control Loop Control Actions Project Changes Project Performance Performance Driven Control Planned Versus Actual Expenditures on a Project 100% Planned Expenditure 80% Revised Estimate of Future Expenditure Actual Expenditure PROJECT TIME (%) 60% 40% 20% 0% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% BUDGETED EXPENDITURE (%) Performance-Driven Control Methods Awkward fact: Can typically only correct for one attribute of a problem at a time Time Cost Quality Need to understand tradeoffs and triage Most "easy wins" will already be in place Exception: Sometimes new information is available that can enable improved performance now Acceleration $ (Overtime, shift work, Rework, higher-end equipment, better crews etc.) Attribute Linkages Slow progress $ Delayed occupation, Higher interest on Cost Schedule const. loan Difficulty in getting financing Trying to save $ Loss of tenants Can lead to substitution, Default of parties Opportunity cost lower quality Suspension of work Selection of poor quality workers workmanship $ Need for rework imposes high expenses High quality needs can lead to costly miscalculations on labor time Schedule Quality level impacts speed of work, Level of rework Quality Quality problems result from overtime, shift work, new hires Caveats on Overreacting When trying to correct, often bump up against other limiting factors Space constraints Skill set breadth Hiring time Morale Coordination difficulties Often improvisation can lead to Confusion Cascading unanticipated effects "Job rhythm" and learning curves make big difference! Schedule Performance Control Project managers can use resources to increase work rate mainly in two ways: 1) adding new project resources (eg., Schedule Crashing) and 2) reallocating available resources (eg., Linear Scheduling Method ), Schedule Performance Control Change operating conditions by altering the location of the work Change operation conditions by altering the precedence, sequence, or timing of work Change the technology used Changes in the tools and methods Project Acceleration I Multiple-shift work Lack of coordination Hiring Environmental/safety constraints Overtime/Extended workdays Fatigue Lower morale Rework Project Acceleration II Using larger or more productive equipment Training/learning curve Procurement time Space constraints Increasing # of workers Training (takes time of most experienced!) Space constraints Hiring time Lack of knowledge of processes Project Acceleration III Using faster-installing materials Procurement Alternate construction methods Skill set Learning curve Unknown side-effects Project Acceleration IV Summon on-call contractor Learning curve Friction between teams Unknown personality situation Activity Time-Cost Tradeoffs Frequently we have a tradeoff b.t. $ and time "Time is money" Can finish more rapidly if have More highly skilled labor More expensive equipment More workmen More highly paid (motivated!) labor Project Time-Cost Tradeoff Project Time-Cost Trade-off Curve 25 20 15 ($) 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 project penalty Overhead Total Total cost is non-monotonic: Sometimes using less time globally NOTE: If activity time-cost curves are linear, then finding the optimal z Link to Earlier Topic: Resource Scheduling Recall: Earlier we discussed some resource time tradeoffs Resource leveling Resource scheduling At that time, we considered activity atomic: We did not consider changing activity durations/resource use profiles Time-curves often serve as a proxy for intraactivity resource reasoning Time-Cost Tradeoffs: Key Concepts Two components (either or both) Reduce duration for activities on critical path Try to increase $ as little as possible in process! Reduce costs on activities not on critical path Often involves increasing duration but want to keep off Critical path! Explicit activity time-costs tradeoffs examine direct, local activity costs only Ignore (important) indirect costs of project extension These are global costs that depend on the entire project duration rather than activity duration Time-Cost Trade Off Curve A single Activity trade off curve: 20 18 16 14 12 ($) 10 8 6 4 2 0 Time Normal Duration Time-Cost Trade-off Curve What duration would you choose? Trading Money for Time "Activity Crashing" Critical path tells us time-limiting activities No benefit from reducing time of all activities up front just those on critical path NB: This is an important area in which CPM has contributed to construction understanding Previously, many managers put effort into accelerating whole project Critical path may change as crashing changes activity durations Time-Cost Algorithms If activity time-cost curves are linear, then finding the optimal duration of the project is a linear program (LP). If not, then it is an NLP. Common assumptions Time-Cost tradeoff is convex No binding resource constraints "Normal" activity cost is lowest-cost point Kelly & Walker Crashing Heuristic 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Solve CPM with normal durations For critical activities: Find marginal cost of crashing (i.e., additional cost of shortening duration 1 time unit) Reduce by one time step the critical activity with the lowest marginal cost of crashing Record resulting activity project duration and cost Repeat [3] until another path becomes critical. Repeat [1] until project cost increases. NOTE: Good, but not necessarily optimal solutions Problems? Concerns? Issues with Heuristic What about resource constraints? If our preferences were determined partly by resource constraints, we are no longer guaranteed to have a legal schedule! The resulting schedule could have highly irregular (and thus costly) resource use Number of nodes multiples as more detailed cost tradeoffs required Monotonically decreasing but non-convex timecost curves require different algorithm Cost Performance Control Resource use, allocation again central Effective and timely cost control is crucial to ensuring the project cost performance. It should be an on-going process, taking into consideration the following: Change resources to remove excess capacity Change operating conditions to increase work efficiency and product quality Change methods by outsourcing different operations Re-price the work, equipment, or materials Substitute with less expensive but acceptable materials or equipment Trading Time for Money Slack Management Remember: Time imposes extra indirect costs! Slack Management : when budget is limited during a certain time period, rescheduling the project by changing activity `timing' and associated expenditure or income. Activity Timing Change: Non-critical activities first (having FF -> TF), then critical activities. Activities having Free Float Activities having Total Float Activities on Critical path Adapted from Pena-Mora 2003 Recall: Resource Leveling Insight: a more steady usage of resources leads to lower resource costs. Labor: costs associated with hire, fire, and training Material: storage requirement, planning and controlling efforts Resource Leveling : the reallocation of slack (TF or FF) in non-critical activities to minimize fluctuations in the resource requirement profile. Topics Monitoring cont'd EVA (C/SCSC) Definitions and examples Forecasting Project Control General Performance-adjustments Target Adjustments Problem diagnosis Target-Driven Control: More Political Process Initial Targets Project Targets Performance Targets Forecasting Forecasted Performance Performance Test Performance Deficits and Surpluses Target Changes Measured Performance Error Signal Descriptors Error Signals Target-Driven Control Loop Performance-Driven Control Loop Control Actions Project Changes Project Performance Topics Monitoring cont'd EVA (C/SCSC) Definitions and examples Forecasting Project Control General Performance-adjustments Target Adjustments Problem diagnosis ...
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