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TERMS test 1914-1939 (2) - TERMS 1 pogrom Russian riots...

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TERMS: 1. pogrom— Russian riots against Jews which were the worst of their kind in the late 19 th century; destruction of homes, businesses, religious centers 2. Russification- Program adopted by the Russian Empire under Alexander III (late 19 th century) in which people of different nationalities in Russia (Poles, Ukrainians, Lithuanians, etc) were forced the assimilate the Russian culture; did this because they saw the West as alien and doomed, and had Russian delusions of grandeur 5. Constitutional Democrats-- Emerged in 1905 as the liberal section of public opinion in Russia; they were liberals, progressives, or constitutionalists in the Western sense, thinking less about the troubles of factory workers and peasants than about the need for a nationally elected parliament to control the policies of state 6. "mir"— Village communes in which peasants who were free from their former land owners lived; in most communes, much of of the land was divided and redivided among peasant households by agreement of the village community, nor could anyone leave without communal permission; represented a socialist idea 7. Social Revolutionary party— Founded on populist sentiment in 1901; wanted to suppress the supposed revolutionary tradition of peasants; liked mirs b/c it was socialist; did not believe socialism would have to emerge after capitalism, and thought revolution was soon 10. Social Democratic Founded by Marxists in Russia; different concept of revolution than SRs— revolution was an international movement, thought Russia must develop capitalism, an industrial proletariat, and class struggle before there could be revolution; urban proletariat = only revolutionary class; didn’t like terrorism 11. Bolsheviks— Majority faction of Russian Marxists, led by Lenin; called for “Peace, Land, and Bread”: an end to the war, the confiscation of the land of the great landowners and its distribution to the peasants, and the seizure of food for the cities 12. Mensheviks— Minority faction of Russian Marxists; favored larger and more open party, a greater degree of influenc e by the membership as a whole, covering up all but the most fundamental disagreements, cooperation with liberals, progressive, and bourgeoisie democrats 13. Leninism— a.k.a. Boshevism, believe party should be revolutionary elite w/ zealous workers; strongly centralized party with strong authority at the top; party could strengthen itself by purges, expelling all who disagreed
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w/ \\\them; rigied reaffirmation of Marxian fundamentals—dialectical materialism and class struggle 1. Nicholas II— Took the throne in 1894 and had a narrow outlook; was appalled by any ideas questioning autocracy, Orothodoxy, and Great Russian nationalism (liberalism and democracy was bad); believed autocracy was the God-given form of Russian government 2. "Bloody Sunday"— First act of Russian revolution( January 1905); peaceful demonstrators had gone to petition tsar for reforms, but were fired upon by troops; aftermath = wave of demonstrations and strikes, snapped moral bond between workers and
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