Unformatted text preview: China: Governance and Policymaking PRC Communist Party dominance of all social institutions. CCP 66 million members as of late 2002. Population of 1.2+ billion people Mao: 1954 "The force at the core leading our cause forward is the Chinese Communist Party." National People's Congress Deng China should "never dispense with leadership by the party." Mao Zedong thought Adapting MarxismLeninism to an agrarian society. Deng Xiao Ping Theory Added in 1997 officially Jiang Zemin's "The Three Represents" Expanding CCP to incorporate all sectors of society. Focus shifting to economic development. China A Unitary State, like France, Britain. Federal states: U.S., India, Nigeria The Executive Dual: Premier (Prime Minister) and a President. CCP is headed by a General Secretary Communist Party exercises "complete" control. Government is serving the goals of the party. Real power is in head of the party The Chinese Communist Party (CCP) Local and national party structures Deng Xiao Ping "Paramount Leader": 19781996 or so. Never occupied any of the top executive offices.. His power was based on informal ties.. Most of original guard were dead. Octogenarians to next generation of technocrats. Generational change in late 1990s. National Party Congress and Central Committee National Party Congress meets for one week every five years. More than 2100 delegates More symbolic than substantive. NPC approves decisions made by others. Central committee 198 full and 158 alternate members. Meets annually for about a week. Elected by the NPC by secret ballot. Limited choice of candidates. Most powerful Politburo and Standing Committee. 2002 Politburo had 24 members. Standing committee had 9. Workings shrouded in secrecy Zhongnanhai The White House/West Wing/Capital 10 Downing Street/Westminster "Core of Generations" Mao Zedong Deng Xiao Ping Jiang Zemin Hu Jintao (fourth) One and Two were true giants. The Secretariat Manages the day to day work of the politburo and standing committee CCP Local party organizations in provinces, cities an counties with a party committee. 3 million primary party organizations branches and cells in workplaces, schools, urban neighborhoods, rural towns villages, army units Chinese government is hierarchical. Top: National Party Congress Provincial People's Congresses Municipal people's Congresses Rural Township People's Congresses... Theoretically Congresses check the executives but Executives work for party. Party is supreme President and V.P elected by National People's Congress. One candidate chosen by communist party. President's term is Five years concurrent with Congress. Twoterm limit. Hu Jintao elected in March 2003 Premier (Primeminister) Head of government. Has "authority over bureaucracy and policy implementation" Communist party Decides premier. Premier can serve only two five year terms. Wen Jiabao elected premier in march 2003 Premier Directs state council "highest organ of state administration". State council appointed by the national People's Congress but membership determined by Party leadership. State Council Size varies. In 2003, size reduced to 28 seeking more central planning and streamlining. Dual Rule Borrowed from Soviet Union. "Government organizations below national level are under vertical supervision and horizontal supervision of communist party at their level" China's bureaucracy Immense in size. Cadres (bureaucrats): 40 million. Some work directly for government. Most work in factories, schools.... Approximately 25 million of the above are not party members. Party cadres have supremacy Plan to reduce size of bureaucracy by 10% Mandatory retirement by 6070 for cadres. Twoterm limit for top cadres. Chinese military and police Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA). World's largest military force. About 2.5 million active personel. 4 million in 1989. Reserve of 1 million. + backup reserve of 12 15 million Increase in defense spending. 17% in 20012002. Late 1990s 1.9 military personel per 1000 U.S 3.2 per 1,000. 2002: $20 billion on defense. U.S. $379 billion. PPP? Mao "Political Power grows out of the barrel of a gun..." "Our principle is that the party commands the gun, and the gun must never be allowed to command the party." Military does not have formal political power. Party does. But it has informal power. Links to leaders.. PLA institution to keep CCP in power. CCP and PRC Central Military Commissions (CMC) are in charge of armed forces. The Judiciary Fourtiered. Supreme People's Court Higher Peoples court Intermediate People's court Basic People's court "People's Procuratorate" Prosecutor and public defender and investigates. Citizens mediation committees 100,000 lawyers in China. 1 million lawyers in the U.S. Surge in lawsuits in recent years. Swift justice 9899 % conviction rate. Prison terms are long. Only cursory appeal. Some crimes subject to capital punishment. Method? "Strike hard" campaign: April to July of 2001 1781 people executed in China more than the rest of the world combined. Amnesty International... Courts under party control Sub national government Four layers: Provinces, cities, counties, rural towns Centrally administered cities Shanghai, Beijing, Tianjin, Chongquing Five autonomous regions Tibet, Inner mongolia? Subnational people's government Executive Bureaus Judicial organs Decentralization since days of economic liberalization. Central government still exceedingly powerful. A federal system would be better? 700,000 rural villages Technically selfgoverning. Competitive local elections.. Grassroots democracy??? Local communist party leader most important person. Policymaking Under control of CCP. Cadres list (nomenklatura in USSR)/ "nomenklatura system" Guanxi personal connections Multiple influences on CCP leadership. Ideology Factional struggles Bureaucratic interests Guanxi ...
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- Spring '08
- People's Republic of China, Deng Xiaoping, Communist Party of China, Communist party, People's Liberation Army