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China.4 - China Representation and...

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Unformatted text preview: China Representation and Participation "Socialist Democracy" What Chinese communist party calls it's system. Based upon One party systemunchallenged leadership of communist party. There are elements of representation and participation though Legislative bodies, elections, organizations. But they are strictly controlled. The Legislature National People's Congress (NPC) Officially has power to: enact and amend the country's laws, approve and monitor state budget, declare and end war. The Legislature Also to elect and recall the president and vice-president of the PRC, chair of state central military commission, head of China's Supreme Court, and ProcuratorGeneral. Paper powers. Reality is that the Communist party makes decisions. NPC Unicameral Elected for 5 year terms Meets annually for about two-weeks in march. Size is set prior to each 5 year period. 2003 elections: 3000 deputies Not full-time legislators. NPC Chosen on geographic basis from Chinese provinces.. 73% in 2003 were members of CCP. Others were members of other minor parties- note they do exist. Demographics of legislature Workers/farmers: 18% Intellectuals/professionals: 21% Government/party cadres: 32% or so Military : 9% Entrepreneurs/others: rest Women: 20%/Ethnic minorities: 14% Annual sessions Much press.. Almost unanimous voting but some dissent. Three Gorges Dam. "Economics replacing ideology" Political Parties and party system "one-party system" with 9 parties ? Parties other than the Communist party are weak and/or unchallenging. Chinese Communist Party Significant growth since 1949. Weakness during the cultural revolution. Largest political party in world in raw numbers. 5% of population. Numbers of workers: diminishing Women-less than 20%/ 2.5% of elite of central committee. Wu Yi- one female member of Politburo. No women on standing committee of politburo. CCP- still recruits about a million new members a year. Noncommunist parties "democratic parties" China Democratic League: mostly intellectuals Chinese Party for the Public Interestreturned overseas chinese... Fewer than 500,000 members in the non-communist parties They do NOT contest for power. They advise CCP and build support in their constituencies. "Loyal non-opposition" Elections Mechanisms to increase "legitimacy" of state. Direct and Indirect Direct All eligible citizens may vote for deputies in county-level people's congress. Indirect Higher level bodies elected by lower level bodies. National Peoples congress elected by provincial people's congress. No direct elections at national/provincial level. Most elections are indirect. Rural villages Site of most democratic action. Direct elections... grassroots action. Elections are truly not means of citizens exercising real choice and power. Jiang Zemin: 1998 "Model of the West.... should not be copied." Culture, citizenship, identity CCP Ideology: "Marxism-leninism, Mao Zedong thought, Deng Xiao Ping Theory, and the Important thought of the Three Represents." Media Not free. Film industry expanding and getting quite good. Oscar and Cannes. Internet- growing fast... difficult to control.. Schools Primary school enrollment close to 100%. Improved significantly in recent decades. Not centers of independent or critical thinking./ 80% +belong to Young Pioneers. Weakening of respect for communist party values Other forms of socialization... Growing religiosity: Buddhism/ Christianity/ Party turning to patriotism Nationalist tendenciesOlympics, Hong Kong, Macao China's non-chinese 56 ethnic groups. Han majority: 91.5% or so. Minority groups- sparse population. Huge area- 60% of PRC. Allowed more freedom in having kids. Tibet Hu Jintao was party chief in Tibet- 198892. Dalai Lama. Islam 20 million + muslims. Uighurs in Xinjiang. Independent Social movements Not permitted to have any significant role. Alternatives Social connections (guanxi) Patron-client relationships Mass-organizations that are permitted: All- China federation of Trade Unions All-china Women's Federation Top-down, party-controlled organizations NGOs China Green China Foundation for prevention of STD's.. China Children and Teenager's Fund Beijing Center for Women's Law services Are subordinate to CCP- do provide access points.. Mechanisms of Social control Danwei system. Holds meetings to discuss official line. Political Dossier's kept on every employee. Protest Tiananmen Square (1989) Massive retaliation/repression to prevent the "polish disease" No large scale highly public protest since. But lots of protests over Environment, ethnic groups, property, corruption, etc.. Falun Gong A Changing China Guangqiao: Hubei Province Meishu: Yunan Province Daolin: Hunan Province Bweiwang: Hebei Province Challenges Managing massive economic growth with all its social costs and dealing with the inherent pressures for more political freedom in a freer market. "Market Leninism" Trends toward more democracy Global movement that way Increased education of Chinese Small scale democratic movements/actions in China Growth in civil society Free markets.... Technology... Comparative Points To other communist party-states ----- USSR Transition to post-totalitarian stateauthoritarian.../ neoauthoritarian o To Third World Countries "Riddle of China": A baby born in Shanghai today has a longer life-expectancy than a baby born in New York City today." Huge challenges and conflicts ...
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