Iran.2 - Iran: 2 The Qajars (1794-1925) Continued Shi’ism...

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Unformatted text preview: Iran: 2 The Qajars (1794-1925) Continued Shi’ism Made it the state religion. Did not boast of geneological links to the twelve imams. Coincided with peak of European imperialism Qajars Forced to give concessions to Russians, from British… Note: p.577- “the later Qajars also borrowed heavily from European banks to meet lavish court expenses…. Forced to place customs service under European supervision…” Rising resentments.. Lead to revolution of 1905-06 1906 Constitution Elections, separation of powers, popular sovereignty. National Assembly: the Majles- guaranteed seats to religious minoritiesjews, zoroastrians, Christians. The Majles Extensive authority. Ministers accountable to Majles, not the Shah. Constitution included a bill of rights. Some concessions to Shiism. Concessions Only shi’is could hold cabinet posts. Courts had right to implement Shari’a Guardian council given veto power over parliamentary bills. Guardian council though not convened until 1979 Islamic revolution. Major divisions, famine, etc. Disarray by 1921 The Pahlavis (1925-1979) Colonel Reza Khan- led coup d’etat. Established Pahlavi dynasty in 1925. Non-aligned . Reza Shah ruled until 1941. Mohammed Reza Shah Son took over in 1941. Lost power briefly in 1951. Restored to power in 1953 with help of the CIA and the British. Shah ruled autocratically until 1979- when overthrown. Was seen as puppet of USA Pahlavis Armed forces Bureacracy Royal patronage system. 1979: fifth largest army in world. Secret police: SAVAK. European style civil code, rather than Sharia Pahlavis Large landowners Secularization Centralization Industrialization Social development Arbitrary rule “Disregard for constitutional liberties and stifling of press” Weak roots Shah: megalomaniac. Resurgence party 1979: Islamic revolution Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomenei. More a poltical revolutionary than social conservative. Populist Khomenei Referred to the dispossessed. “the meek shall inherit the earth.” Jurist’s gurdianship: grand ayatollah’s have all –power. Senior clerics had “sole competence” of interpretation Economic recession, international pressure weakened the shah. Protests Bloody Friday (September 8, 1978) Widespread disillusionment National Front, Doctors, Lawyers, Womens communists, students, shopkeepers… February 11, 1979 “This is the voice of Iran, the voice of true Iran, the voice of the Islamic Revolution.” The Islamic Republic (1979present) 7 weeks later: referendum by “97 percent of voters” Khomenei becomes ruler. Imam: “infallible authority” endorsement Assembly of Religious Experts drew up Constitution 73 men. 40 hojjats al-Islam 15 Ayatollahs Pro-Khomenei Reason for Khomeini’s and clerics success. Khomeini’s charisma Iraqi invasion of Iran in 1980 High Oil prices 1989: Khomeini dies. Ali Khamenei became Ayatollah and Supreme Leader. 1988: Iran/Iraq war ends/ceasefire. After 1984-oil prices drop drastically By 1998, very low. By late 1990s- ideological crisis in country. Historical Junctures and Poltical Themes Dealing with democracy Role in world Governing the economy Rising expectations of citizens To overcome internal divisions Internal affairs Islam and democracy. Iran has been Muslim since the 600s and Shiite since the 1500s. 1905 Constitution includes basic principles of democracy: popular sovereignty, mass participation, .. Dual aspirations One has much deeper roots. Inherent conflict: Democracy “based partly” on idea of all individuals being equal before the law and all individuals have inalienable natural rights– also on majority rule… Sharia : rights come from God, not nature.. Sharia Like “all” religious law- rights of individual subordinate to that of larger religious community.” People of the Book vs. unbelievers Over 650 in Iran executed as apostates- losers of faith Some advocate a “don’t ask, don’t tell policy” Internationally Seeks to be the dominant power in Persian Gulf. Khomeini: Iranian nationalist, Muslim revolutionary, populist. Khomeini Called for revolutions in middle east Strengthened Navy. Bought submarines from Russia. Sent money to Shi’i groups in Lebabon, Iraq, Afghanistan. Called for Fatwa on Salman Rushdie. Assassinated exiles. Iran Isolated from US and western Europe. Population: 64 million. 99% is muslim. 90% Shi’i. 10% sunni. Divisions, economic challenges. Comparative Implications “Clash of civilizations?” Islam vs. the west? Or the West vs. Islam?. “Islam is not a monolith. Iran is not a monolith: ultra-conservatives, conservatives, liberals, moderates, radicals….. Iran One of region’s biggest armies Large landmass Decent GDP Major oil production Largest navy Soon: nuclear weapons? Iran Iran’s GDP about New Jersey’s Off 8 year conflict with Iraq. Military equipment is outdated. US: Iraq War Strengthened or weakened Iran? “the Muslim world” Many rival states. Sunni vs. Shi’I Old vs. new. Traditional vs. Modern Liberal vs. conservative Rich vs. Poor Political Economy Iran applied to WTO in 1996. IN 2002- new law allows foreigners to own as much as 100% of a firm. ’19th c: integration into the world system” Concessions to Europeans Suez canal Trans-Caspian railway. Telegraph lines. Industrial revolution in Europe Consequences Economic dependency. Devastation of some traditional handicrafts, textiles.. Carpet manufacturers benefited. Other consequences Intro of cash crops- cotton, tobacco, opium--- less for wheat and food crops. Famines… Trade helped develop a propertied middle class- with interests different from state Oil “black gold” Helped develop a rentier state- country gets significant income by exporting raw material or leasing natural resources to foreigners. Poverty of Oil. Does Oil make a state rich or poor? State becomes independent of society Society has few inputs. No taxation means no representation. State dependent upon international market whims… BOOM . Bust. 1979: Oil was 97% of countries foreign exchange Economy 1960-1977- GNP grew at average rate of 9.6%. Roads, education, health services. Population explosion. By mid- 70s- half population under 16. Shah believed in trickle down theory Population explosion increased the number of illiterates. Development of Tehran at expense of countryside. Major disparity. Dual society Dual Society Upper class: Pahlavi, court-connected entrepreneurs, military officers, senior civil servants- less than .01% of population. Modern sector: middle class professionals, civil servants, salaried personel, college students10% Lower modern sector- factory workers- 32% Traditional sector- small retailers,…13% Rural masses: 45% Widening inequality 1972: richest 20%- 47% of expenditures. 1977: richest 20%- 55% of expenditures. 1972: lowest 20%- 16.7% 1977: lowest 20%- 11.7% Fueling of resentment Jalal Al-e-Ahamad – shi’I roots Ali Shariati- similar yet mixed with marxism, catholic liberation theology, frantz fanon….. Struggle of oppressors and oppressed. Died on eve of 1979 revolution but thought to be the true revolutionary behind 1979. International Political Economy OPEC. Iran could cast decisive votes. Shah’s military might. Iran become closely linked and dependent upon trade with US. Oil addicted rentier state weakened Shah’s political standing. Political Economy of Islamic republic Instability in world oil markets. War with Iraq: costs, property damage, los of life, casualties. Flight to west by the best/wealthiest in country. Brain drain. Population explosion. Twenty year economic crisis- ended in late 90s. Failures and successes See page 594-595 Governance and Policy-making “Theocracy with some concessions to democracy.” Clergy control important positions. President directly elected by people. State Organization Islamic constitution designed by Assembly of Religious experts- after 1979. Amended- april to June of 1989. Preamble to Constitution Faith in God Divine Justice The Quran The Resurrection The Prophet Muhammed The twelve Imams The Mahdi Jurist’s guardianship Supreme Leader Khomeini- supreme leader for life. Leader of the Revolution, founder of the Islamic revolution, founder of the islamic republic.. Imam of the whole community. Ali Khamenei elected by clerics to succeed him. Iranian Islamic republic Regime/Oligarchy of the hojjat-al-islams. Constitution gives broad powers to Supreme Leader. Can mediate between legislature, executive, judiciary. Can eliminate presidential candidates, dismiss elected one. Supreme Leader Commander-in-chief Can grant amnesty Nominate and remove chief judge Nominates six clerics to twelve-man guardian council. Fills important nongovernmental posts Assembly of Religious experts 86 man house elected every four years. Essentially an upper chamber to Majles. General Public Elects: Majles The President Assembly of Religious experts. Supreme Leader and Guardian council decide who can run. Laws Supposed to conform with Sharia. Bills passed by Majles are reviewed by the Guardian council to ensure they conform with sharia. Judicial system has been islamicized The Executive President and Cabinet. Chosen every four years through national election. Must be a pious Shi’l faithful to principles of the Islamic Republic. Cannot be elected for more than two terms. President Draws up annual budget.. Supervises economic matters Can propose legislation to majles Signs international laws, treaties. Chairs national security council. Appoints most senior officials. Names some top large public organizations. Presidents have generally been clerics Ali Khamenei- last years of Khomeini’s life. Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani ali- Akbar- (1989- 1997) Sayyid Muhammed Khatami (1997-2005) The Bureaucracy Expanded- headed by President. Clergy dominated. Semi-public institutions Directed by clerics. Foundation for the Oppressed. The Military Clery controlled. The Judiciary Retribution Law, based upon Sharia. Contradicted UN charter on Human Rights? “an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth, a life for a life.” Death penalty: adultery, homosexuality, apostasy, drug trafficking, habitual drinking.” Subnational Government Provinces, districts, subdistricts, townships, villages. Local councils Policy-Making Complex with factional conflicts. Clerical drift Society of the Militant Clergy and the Association of the Militant clergy. Society: statists, populists, radical reformers. Association: Laissez-faire conservatives Society Welfare staters. Individual rights, rule of law, government accountability: equivalent to Social Democrats. “Progressives, seekers of new ideas” Association Free-market conservatives “middle of the roaders, traditionalists” “medievalists, rightests, capitalists, mafia bazaaries, pro-American Muslims.” Constitutional gridlock Early Islamic majles: dominated by radicals. Guardian council by conservatives. Khomeini Maslahat: “public interest” “reasons of state” -state could overrule other rulings. Expediency Council for Determining the Public Interest of the Islamic Order. To resolve conflicts. Expediency Council Secretive supra-constitutional body accountable only to the supreme Leader: in 2002- 32 members Representation and Participation The Legislature: Majles- enacting or changing laws, with approval of Guardian council. Qanan- statutes. Originally- 270 seats, now 290 seats- elected by citizens over 16. Important body in Iran Political Parties Not encouraged until Khatami elected in 1997. Now three active parties: Islamic Iran participation Front. Islamic Labor Party Servants of Reconstruction. “guided democracy” Parties in exile The Liberation movement The National Front The Mojahedin The Fedayin The Tudeh Elections 1996 Guardian council excluded over 44% of 5000 candidates. Winner-take all majority system. Ballot boxes placed in mosques. Six majles during the Islamic Republic First Majles( 1980) Plethora of parties, candidates, organizations, etc. –ranging across the political spectrum Second Majles (1984) Spring of the revolution was past. Opposition either banned or restricted. Islamic Republican Party (rightest) dominated. Third Majles (1988) Radicals initially dominated. Khomeini died though and Khamenei and Rafsanjani began to institute more freemarket ideas. Fourth Majles (1992) Conservative majority early but divided. Rafsanjani instituted free-market reforms. Fifth Majles (1996) Dominated by conservatives, who had been endorsed by Chamber of Commerce, …. Gridlocked: Conservatives prevented liberalization. The Sixth Majles (2000) Reformers won: Khordad Front. Free press, government accountability, fewer privileges for clergy. Abdol-Karim Soroush: civil society, pluralism, democracy, freedom, equality… Culture, Citizenship, Identity Shi’ism: faith of majority of people and government. Constitution “protects” individual rights and civil society.” rights of minorities: christians, jews, zoroastrians. Language Protections to non-persian speakers Azeris Shi’I but not persian speaking. Minorities Many have left. Interests, Social Movements, Protests Violation of own constitution Women and educated women Workers Youth ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/29/2008 for the course CPO 2001 taught by Professor Kraus during the Spring '08 term at University of Florida.

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