Unformatted text preview: Mexico
Political Economy and Development Porfiriato(18761911) Mexico developing export industries (textiles, footwear, glassware...) Foreigners came in. Nationalist reaction against. Contributed to Revolution of 1910 Sense of Social Justice "The State" should be primary resource to protect welfare of citizens and provide for all." Debate over agroexport model Exporting of goods leads to importing of raw materials necessary to produce the exports. Imports costly. Should shift to import substitution model. Import Substitution Substitute imports for home grown goods. 19401970 Three decade period of sustained growth based upon agriculture and industry. The Mexican Miracle Various strong interests developed. Elite business interests. Unions. National Confederation of Workers (CTM) developed by Cardenas. Industrialization to Powerful set of government people... Corruption. Mordidas bribes Many left behind Urban poor and peasantry. Informal sector developed. Growth in disparity between urban and rural lead to rural rebellions. Early 1970s Rural Poverty Chaotic urbanization High Population growth Questions over political legitimacy Response: Government spending and borrowing to address problems. Investments in infrastructure, etc. Growth in debt. Rise in inflation 7681 Rising fortunes with rise in oil prices. 1982: Massive foreign debt $86 billion Oil: 77% of oil revenues 1982: Crisis with fall in Oil prices Mexico couldn't pay its debts. Crisis leads to: Loss of faith in import substitution. Business failures. Job loss/inflation. Wages lose value. PRI weakened. Barely win in 1988. 8894 Freemarket policies instituted. Decreasing regulation. New Federalism: devolution of power to state and local governments. More regional bureaus. NAFTA NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement Mexico increasingly linked to US economy. New improved democratic structures. Independent election board. Auditing of political parties. More fairness for political parties 1997/2000 PRI loses Congress then Presidency Society and Economy Dramatic improvement since the 1940s. Infant mortality, life expectancy, literacy. By 1980s 1/3+: "middle class" BUT in comparison Costa Rica, Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Uruguay did better in some indicators of more balanced overall social development. Mexico city Polluted and congested. Rural areas Oil damage. Growing inequality North much better off than south. Big gap between rich and poor. 25 million still in rural areas many very poor. Crisis of 1980s Leads to social costs. Lower investment in social programs. Teachers salaries fall. Reduction in expenditures on health and education. Mexico and International Political Economy 1980s1990s. Greater emphasis on exports.... Trade. Culmination NAFTA. 2000 89% of exports to the US. NAFTA Closer integration. Environment and labor agreements. RiSKS Loss of sovereignty? Competition from the US farmers. Cultural imperialism? Dependent upon trade Politically International political links/alliances. Reducing secrecy/more openness. Dependency upon keeping investors happy. Governance and Policymaking Mexico A federal Republic Under PRI Executive was most supreme. Civilian, Authoritarian, corporatist Constitution of 1917 Three branches Checks and Balances. Resembles? Legislative branch(Congress) Senate (128) Chamber of Deputies (500) Six year terms President, Governors, Senators Differences with US Constitution is long, easily amended. Grants widerange of human rights. More centralization than in US Congress is more powerful than it had been as a check. The Presidency The central institution in policymaking and governance Up to 1990s Incumbent President selects next candidate, governors, senators, deputies, local positions.. Considered above criticism until the 1970s Presidents Initiative legislation. Lead in foreign policy Create government agencies Appoint officials. Make policy by decree or other Manages vast patronage power Vicente Fox Promised: Fewer personnel changes More open government and greater diversity. Congress Has been more forceful Vicente Fox Was businessman and Governor. Different from recent Mexican presidents who have been welleducated economists/ public administration degreed. "technocrats" Cabinet Named by President. President Can name other powerful positions. Highlevel appointees then also use power of patronage to appoint more people. Presidents "Not omnipotent" Must adhere to sexenio since 1940. Must also "step out of the limelight" Must demonstrate interest in traditional cultural norms Varying trajectories to power now. Fox was different more of businessman. Zedillo did not name successor candidate. Because Fox was heading new party need for strong leadership not always there. The Bureaucracy Large 1.5 million in federal bureaucracymost in Mexico city. Another million for stateowned industries. Parastatals
PEMEX Petroleum NAFIN state investment company. Parastatals reduced in 1980s/90s Military Kept military out of politics Kept subordinate to civilian control. Military called in though to suppress revolts, etc. Concern after Colosio's assassination. Judiciary Constitution comes from Roman and Napoleonic traditions more explicit formalized. Includes right to a healthy environment Fewer lawsuits than in U.S Federal and state courts Supreme Court Nominated by President. Approved by the President. Most important laws are federal. States becoming more powerful. Zedillo tried to emphasize more the rule of law. Increased power of the judiciary Subnational government Federal system Each state has constitution, executive, unicameral legislature and judiciary. Municipalities too. Most funds come from federal government. Until 1988, all governors were PRI. Now many more 14 + ? Policymaking process More presidential centered. Expect leadership from President. Channels for such. Informal means Representation and Participation The Legislature Elected through dual system. First past the post and proportional representation. Each state elects 3 senators. Two by majority vote and third by the party that receives the second highest votes. 32 more senators determined through proportional representation Chamber of Deputies 300 on majority vote 200 more by proportional representation Women in Congress 2001: 15.6% of Senate/ 16% of Chamber of Deputies Growing strength of Congress Leading to more gridlock. Fox does not have party majority. So: divided government. Senate denied Fox permission to go to US and Canada??????? Curious. Emergence of a more genuine multiparty system ...
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- Spring '08
- import substitution, Mexico Political Economy, Mexico developing export, Trade Agreement Mexico