Unformatted text preview: Mexico Vicente Fox December 1, 2000 First time in 71 years nonPRI National Action Party (PAN) Reforms of 1980s/1990s Geography Population 100 million Mestiso: 60 million Amerindian: 30 million Caucasion or other : 10 million Maya/Nahuatl/ Zapotec/Mixtec... Urban nation: 74% Mexico City: 20 million Maquiladores Border cities: Tijuana Critical Junctures Revolution of 1910 18101876 Independence and instability. Miguel Hidalgo: parish priest 1821: Independence gained Lost half its territory to the US Texas:1836 Annexed 1845 1847: US invaded Veracruz. 1848: US got Texas, NM, Arizona, Utah, Nevada, California, part of CO "Colossus of the North" Benito Juarez Early reformer/ 1860s.. The Porfiriato (18761911) Porfirio Diaz. 1876. imposed dictatorship. Ruled for 34 years. Centralized rule. Cientificos. Elite accumulated mass wealth. Revolution of 1910 Francisco Madero. Elected on 1911. Local leaders: Emiliano Zapata Northern part: Pancho Villa The Constitution of 1917 Minimum wage, education, economic rights, eighthour day. Limited catholic church. Women had to wait until 1953/58 to vote in local and national elections. By 1920: the following had been assassinated Zapata Villa President Madero President Carranza President Obregon Plutarco Elias Calles: jefe supremos Elected 1924 after some stabilty by 1920 Sonoran dynasty. Extreme anticlericalism Capitalist model 1934: `coup' Lazaro Cardenas Redistribution of land (ejidos) Unions.. Cared for the poor. Cardenos gave up power after a single six year term sexenio national hero today. Set precedents followed today. PRI Institutional Revolutionary Party Developed patronage links. Clientelism Moved away from cardenas style progressive/populist politics to more capitalist techniques wealth building.. 1970s economic crisis Growth had run out of steam Government had borrowed extensively anticipating high oil revenues. In early 80s, oil prices fell. 1882 Presidents Miguel de la Madrid and Carlos Salinas More export oriented 1993 signing of NAFTA More international oriented 1994 Huge economic crisis Peso plummeted. Inflation soared Banking system collapsed. US bailed Mexico out: $50 billion$20 billion of it from our treasury. President was Ernesto Zedillo austerity program Zapatistas in Chiapas EZLN (Ejercito Zapatista National Liberation Front) Two mexicos 1994: assassination of PRI Presidential candidate Donaldo Colosio. Great shock not since 1920s had there been that level of political violence. Disillusionment with PRI 1996 PRI lost majority in Chamber of Deputies 2000 PRI loses the Presidency to Fox. Modern Mexican state in historical context. 1910 revolution inspired values. Social justice, democracy, nationalism. Gained legitimacy with time expansion of supportworkers, peasants. Ideological independence. Corporatist stateinterest groups involved with state. 1980scracks Comparative issues PRI created political stability. Presently transforming from corporatist to more democratic/pluralistic. Middleincome developing country $4400 percapita income similar to Estonia, Poland, Uruguay, Brazil.. Mexico: oil rich Comparative nations India: $450 China:$780 Nigeria: $310 Britain: $22,640 France: $23,480 Great inequalities in Mexico ...
View Full Document
- Spring '08
- Mexican Revolution, National Action Party, PRI Presidential candidate, Zapata Villa President, Emiliano Zapata Northern