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Unformatted text preview: Nigeria
Governance and Policy-making Nigeria "the unfinished state" "the national question" Obasanjo inherited a failed state.. Close to collapse in 1999. "The national question" Who will rule? How will they rule? Should the country remain united? More questions With the great diversity, how to rule? What institutions are best suited? How do you build unity from diversity? Two paths Anglo-American tradition of rule of law Military/ "big man" rule Since 1914 Nine constitutions US: One constitution since 1787/89 Fragile institutions Personal and partisan take precedence First Republic Parliamentary model. Executive chosen by legislative ranks. Relative decentralization The Second Republic 1979 U.S. Style Presidential system Fourth Republic Still Presidential. Strong executive with checks and balances. Bicameral legislature Independent judiciary Federal structure 36 states 774 local government units. Three levels of government Judicial system Local/district courts and state-level courts Military rule led to a federalism Skewed to the power of the central gov. States totally dependent upon central gov. for resources, etc. The Executive PREsident chosen directly by the people since the second republic. First experiment in Presidentialism Lasted 4 years- coup ended it. Buhari.. Then Babangida. Obasanjo in 1999 was first elected President since Shagari in 1983. Under military rule Babangida repressive. Abacha- the worst. Personalistic- patron-client relationships.. Obasango in 99 Retired massive numbers of militarypoliticos.. "kept the military ..in the barracks" Obasanjo Raised minimum wage Tried to get debt forgiveness Niger Delta Development Corporation(NDDC)- 13% to Delta- few of the funds have reached.. Obasanjo `tried to root out public sector corruption" Clientelism/ kickbacks. Peace and Reconciliation commission Refused to make findings public Obasanjo reliant on Big men in 1999 election and again in 2003. Conflicts with national Assembly leaders./ with speaker of the House. The Bureaucracy Patrimonial/ prebendal system. By 1980s- over a million in federal, state, local bureaucracy. Para-statals Corporate enterprises owned by the state. Hybrid. In theory independent but boards are answerable to government. Para-statals Furnish public facilities To accelerate economic development Provide basic services at low-cost Used to "co-opt" business.. Patronage/rent-seeking Major drain on economy The Judiciary Presidential power of appointment of judicial officers. Declining level of judicial standards and bribery/patron-client relationships. Ken Saro-Wiwa- hanging in 1995 Since 1999 Judicial independence has improved. National level Federal court of appeals Supreme Court State and local judiciaries Have appellate courts. North- issue of sharia. Obasanjo has blocked sharia...but some states have acted on their own. Obasanjo trying for "political solution" State and local government. Babangida and Abacha increased number of local governments to increase their own control Six zones Hausa-Fulani Igbo Yoruba Three minorities- middle belt South South Northeast? State governments Weak and dependent upon federal revenues. Conflict between state and national governments- especially in niger-delta. Policy-making Top-down. Loyalty-pyramid Prebendalism Personal ambitions supreme Rent-seeking Military rulers Early ones not as plunderous. Babangida more personal ambition oriented. Abacha- plundered nation. Pariah state by 1999. Policy-making today President announces policy. Filters it through the big men. Relatively little money reaches little people. ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/29/2008 for the course CPO 2001 taught by Professor Kraus during the Spring '08 term at University of Florida.
- Spring '08