Unformatted text preview: Nigeria
Representation and Participation Representation and Participation Two central components in modern democracies. Basic Structure Powerful executive Weak legislatures Weak civil society Unofficial participation Political society Parties Constitutions legislatures Civil society Professional organizations Trade unions Religious organizations Various interest groups Complexity The Legislature Historically weak. 99 legislature had poor role models and little experience. Originally the westminster model 7993/99 present Bicameral structure. Now called National Assembly. Senate equal state representation. Three senators from each of the 36 states, plus one from Abuja the capital. House of Representatives Based upon population, after the US example. 99 National Assembly House/ Senate/ Presidency. All controlled by the People's Democratic Party. Voted for pay raises and furniture expenses.... Battles between legislature and executive To control the budget. Efforts to impeach the President. Legislature has been strengthened. Path toward an equal partnership? Party system and Elections Factionalization View of politics as zerosum game/ winner take all. Did not develop single dominant party like Mexico/ India. Multiparty system reinforced divisions... Nigeria Uses first past the post system Plurality system 1990/92 Hope to transcend cleavages. Mashood Abiola Southern Muslim. Won number of key states in north Election annulled. Abiola jailed. Died just after Abacha died. Abacha (9398) Military infiltrated parties chief Bola Ige "five fingers of a leprous hand" Died of heart attack june 98 Abubakar takes over Abiola dies in early July of heart attack New elections held. Big men get in gear PDP Peoples Democratic Party Includes key northern establishment people Obasanjo joined. Legislative majority. AD(Alliance for Democray) Yoruba based APP (All People's Party)/ ANPP More mixed. Northern politicians/ northeastern and middle belt minorities/ igbo business leaders/ southern minority leaders. Parties Are still topdown and primarily managed and run by "big men". Little support from below. Political Culture, citizenship and Identity Culture "of apathy and alienation" among citizens. State has not delivered. Strong authoritarian traditions battling with efforts at democracy. Modernity vs. Tradition Constant evolution. Individuals tend to identify with their group/ethnicity. See page 559. Nigerians wants and lack of willingness to pay.. Missing the idea of a "working social contract" idea of a common interest. Religion Islam/Christianity. Clashes in north The Press Among "liveliest and most irreverent in Africa." Interests, Social Movements, Protests Labor Unions Student groups Business organizations Various civic groups. Labor State the largest employer. 2 million members. The Business Community Entrepreneurialism "pirate capitalists" Business development Some have demonstrated social responsibility. Built schools...roads... Other social groups Students Doctors Lawyers Disconnect with parties. ...
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- Spring '08
- Democracy, Civil society, weak civil society, Powerful executive Weak, unions Religious organizations