Nigeria 1 - Nigeria 1 Olusegun Obasanjo May 1999 First...

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Unformatted text preview: Nigeria 1 Olusegun Obasanjo May 1999 First elected civilian leader in almost 20 years. Great hopes.. Jimmy Carter, others were friends... Military dictators in 80s and 90s 2002 National Assembly tried to impeach him. Speaker of the House supported it. Contradictions Disproportionately powerful presidency Inexperienced legislature.. Diversity of country "colonialism left Nigerians with a project as complex as the construction of the European Union." Political/Social/Ethnic complexity Igbo Yoruba Authoritarian vs. democratic governance "big man" culture Corruption 250 nationalities/languages Nigerian government "Low-level of accountability and legitimacy and continued inability to meet needs of majority." Independence from Britain in 1960 Has not had orderly transition from one democratic leader to another Nigeria "an unfinished state" 1999 military to civilian rule 2003- more elections. Flawed? Significance of flawed elections? Geography/Population 130 million people Four bordering nations Arbitrary borders Size/population/ oil... history Ethnicity Hausa- Fulani Yoruba Igbo (Ibo) Islam/Christianity/Traditional Precolonial Nigeria Colonial Rule (1860-1960) British: indirect rule Exploited /promoted ethnic divisions. Resources extracted. Cash crops promoted... Multi-ethnic character Hausa-Fulani, Igbo, and Yoruba have dominated politics since 1940s. About 65% of population First Republic (1960-66) Independence- 1960. Adopted British westminster model- Prime Minister was chosen by the majority party. Primarily northern-led coalition 1967-70 Civil War The Biafran war 1966. Coup by Igbo military leader. Backlash against Igbo Obasanjo Took over 76-79 1979-1993 Buhari Babangida Military rule 1993 Election Won by Abiola- Yoruba businessman But election was annulled.... Sani Abacha led coup and became head of state. Abacha was despicable. Abacha died in 1998 suddenly. Abubakar took over Moved the country to civilian rule and Obasanjo was elected. People's Democratic Party (may 1999) Fourth Republic (1999-present) Obasanjo. Yoruba but not trusted by lots of Yoruba. But trusted by northern leaders. He was also a previous military man. Obasanjo- challenge of balancing regions, powerful entities (many corrupt), legislative/executive relations... 2002 impeachment drive Historical Junctures and Themes "Federal Democracy" 250 etnnic groups/languages Strong executive Strong central government (unitary in practice?) Growth of power of other institutions since 1999 In world of states Great potential. Rich in natural resources, literary, artistic traditions. Population Oil Debt- IMF, other lenders Structural Economic problems Colonial legacy- export oriented. Resource extraction. Government management of economy. Interventionist. Democratic ideas Cultural dualism Nigerian tradition of social accountability with western notions of individualism. Colonialism contributed to idea of citizens as passive subjects, not active participants. Authoritarian legacy British colonialism Differences in northern and southern nigeria. North got fewer of the benefits, investments. Indirect rule. Uneven development. Fragile collective identity Hundreds of collective identities. Clientelism Corruption Ethnicity Comparative implications Among 10 most populous countries in world. Largest in africa in population. Oldest "surviving federation" in Africa. Multi-ethnic, multi-class, multi-religious, multi-regional... cleavages. Much to learn/teach Democracy/Development/ Authoritarianism ...
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