Russia.3 - Russia Governance and Policymaking Since 1991...

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Unformatted text preview: Russia Governance and Policymaking Since 1991 Pre-1991- Union Republic in "federal Soviet Union" Post 1991- Independent state with its own Constitution. Russia today Strong executive Multi-party system- plethora of parties Is it a "real" democracy or "soft authoritarian" state ? 1993 Constitution Contested process Separation of powers Independent judiciary Federalism Protection of individual civil liberties Mix of parliamentary and presidential Key feature A strong executive. Fits in with Russian tradition of strong central authority Unique new feature "fragmented and fluid" developing multiparty system Inherited subunits Led to conflict and confusion- evolving situation Soviet state Politburo top party organ Central committee Communist party A "Constitution" Federal system- "phony federalism" Subunits Autonomous republics Krais Oblasts Okrugs "path dependence" Gorbachev: radical changes Competitive elections Increased political pluralism Reduced communist party dominance Revitalized legislature Improved working constitution Toward liberal democracy New Russia Independence December 1991 First President: Boris Yeltsin- direct popular vote. Base of popular legitimacy. New Constitution: December 1993. Present Constitution Russia post 1991 "laboratory of democracy" The Executive Semi-presidential system President: Head of state Prime Minister: Head of Government PM- appointed by Pres/ approved by lower house of Parliament (state duma) A dual executive President oversees foreign policy, relations with regions, state security... Prime Minister- economy and related issues. Similar to which country studied? In late 90s, Power shifted to PM- as Yeltsin's health declined. Shifted back as Putin became PREz. Prime Minister Mikhail Kasyanov? President Elected every four years by DIRECT popular election. No individual may serve more than two terms. 1996: forst presidential election under Russia's new Constitution President's powers To issue decrees. Yeltsin used frequently- privatization, salaries of workers, running of economy, anti-crime measures. Force of law until legislation is passed. Not as powerful as legislation but can avoid uncooperative legislature- temporarily. A similar thing in US? Legislature is divided into: Federal Assembly State Duma Presidential powers To call state of emergency Impose martial law Grant pardons Call referenda Temporarily suspend actions of other state organs (some must be approved by other organs-such as Federation Council) Commander-in-chief Impeachment Complicated process- involves Duma, Federation Council, Supreme Court, Constitutional court. Prime minister takes over in case of death... until.. Prime Minister Head of government. Five deputy prime ministers. Duma must approve President's choice. In Yeltsin years Six prime ministers Duma Can vote no confidence in PM- two times within three times and remove PM But Duma can be dissolved if it does not approve the President's choice- in three tries. Duma reluctant to remove PM. Recently, PM. Never a member of dominant party.. President's and PM Challenged to gain parliamentary acceptance of policies. Weak parties. Weak links with legislature. Different from what country (ies) we studied? ...
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