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18 - IX I 7 fX `h 77 f ` CCCC5B5B5B5B3333 @[email protected]

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1 March 27, 2007 Definition of alienation: A sense of estrangement and loss. Adolescents frequently feel cut off from themselves and others, emotionally distanced from their world: parents, peers, school, and culture Adolescents may act as observers rather than participants in their own reality. Feelings of culture estrangement contribute to feelings of alienation in adolescence. They are expected to assume more adult ways but are not given the same privileges, which makes them feel disenfranchised and powerless. Loss is central to alienation. Reactions to loss can range from hostility to sadness to indifference- from anger to a defensive. Adolescents are at risk when alienation becomes the predominant focus of an their experience. Notable facts: Feelings of sadness, loneliness, and despair become common by middle adolescence. Community surveys indicate an estimated prevalence rate of between 1.8 % and 7.8% for depression adolescence. Lifetime prevalence rates of major depressive disorders (MDD) in adolescents are estimated to range from 15 % to 20%. Girls are twice as likely as boys to present with MDD Major depressive disorder (MDD) adolescents experience severe periods of depression lasting several weeks or more.The mean length of an episode of early-onset MDD is 6 to 9 months. The following symptoms occur: difficulty concentrating loss of pleasure slowed speech and movements vegetative signs: sleepiness, loss of appetite, and weight changes. Dysthymia: Is a less severe form of depression but generally lasts much longer than other types. Adjustment disorder depressed mood brought on by stress; is relatively brief (Petersen et al., 1994). A longitudinal evidence suggests the following risk factors (Jaffe et al., 2002):
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2 developmental deficits family instability – psychopathology and criminality in the biological family – either inhibited or under controlled temperaments in childhood.
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