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Unformatted text preview: IX I (@ 7@ fX `h ( 77 f ` I11I1I1IXWWVVWWVVbbbb9pp9p9p97777D33D3DD3BBBB44441i1i1i1i77775454545455335533 CCCC5B5B5B5B3333 [email protected]@55AA5A5A83838383575757576666 5050505013131313XGBGBGGBB 55RR5R5RG9G9GG99 557757575C5C5C5C6666hgggg BBBB 12121212)e IX IX (@ 7@ fX `h ffff (@ @ fX `h 9XB@ 6XWW@ 9B 6W FFGGGFGF55775757545454549999CCCCdddd545454549999 2222BBDDBBDDBBBB838383835R5R55RR [email protected] 595999551`1`1`1`RR5555RR 9999 [email protected] G3G3GG33 5R5R5R5RVUVUVVUU )c 9XB@ 6X@ TTTT 9XB@ 6XW@ @ @ (((( (@ @ 33335C5C5C5C54545544 55335353CCDDDCDCBBBB3333 505050509999 [email protected] @554454549999 82828282777755665566 545454543333 2222 10101010)' ((@ 22@ ( 22 """" &&&& !!!! %%%%$#$#$#$#""""!!!! March 27, 2007 Definition of alienation: A sense of estrangement and loss. Adolescents frequently feel cut off from themselves and others, emotionally distanced from their world: parents, peers, school, and culture Adolescents may act as observers rather than participants in their own reality. 9XB@ 6XWW@ 9XB@ 6XW@ 545454549999 2222BBDDBBDDBBBB838383835R5R55RR [email protected] 595999551`1`1`1`RR5555RR 9999 [email protected] G3G3GG33 55RR5R5RVUVUVVUU S 9XB@ 6X@ TTTT 9B 6W @ @ @ (((( C@ (@ @ FFGGGFGF557757575454545459595599 @33335C5C5C5C54545544 55335353CCDDDCDCBBBB3333 505050509999 [email protected] @554454549999 82828282777755665566 545454543333 2222 10101010)E CC@ ((@ 22@ C ( 22 @ @ II (( 2 53535533 55CC5C5C545454543333DCDCDCDC5B5B5B5B3333 [email protected] @54545544 9999 2222DBDBDBDB5B5B5B5BGG33G3G35R5R5R5R5Q5Q55QQ 13131313IIPH ((@ 22@ @ 2@ Notable facts: Major depressive disorder (MDD) Dysthymia: Adjustment disorder Girls are twice as likely as boys to present with MDD Feelings of culture estrangement contribute to feelings of alienation in adolescence. They are expected to assume more adult ways but are not given the same privileges, which makes them feel disenfranchised and powerless. Loss is central to alienation. Reactions to loss can range from hostility to sadness to indifferencefrom anger to a defensive. Adolescents are at risk when alienation becomes the predominant focus of an their experience. Feelings of sadness, loneliness, and despair become common by middle adolescence. Community surveys indicate an estimated prevalence rate of between 1.8 % and 7.8% for depression adolescence. Lifetime prevalence rates of major depressive disorders (MDD) in adolescents are estimated to range from 15 % to 20%. adolescents experience severe periods of depression lasting several weeks or more.The mean length of an episode of early-onset MDD is 6 to 9 months. The following symptoms occur: difficulty concentrating loss of pleasure slowed speech and movements vegetative signs: sleepiness, loss of appetite, and weight changes. Is a less severe form of depression but generally lasts much longer than other types. depressed mood brought on by stress; is relatively brief (Petersen et al., 1994). A longitudinal evidence suggests the following risk factors (Jaffe et al., 2002): 1 @ 9X tt@ 2@ @ 9X t@ @ GFGFGFGF57575577 444455995959CCCC @53535533 AAAA 52525252CCCC 52525252uuVVVuVuVtVtttVVbbbbX55BB55BB 54545454 V2V2VV22 @5555 4444 @8a8a8a8aRRRR6666 10101010)E @ 9X @ 2@ (((( 9 t 22 CCCh ((@ 2@ (( 22 7777 wwww 545454549999 h33335C5C55CC 5544545453535353CCDDDCDCBBBB3333 [email protected] @3333AAAA 52525252CCCC 55225252VuVuVVuu )v Ch @ 2@ tttt h @@ 35355533 AAAA 52525252CCCC 22555252uuVVVuVuVtVtttVVbbbbX55BB55BB 54545454 V2V2VV22 @5555 4444 @8a8a8a8aRRRR6666 10101010)' 9X tt@ 2@ 9X t@ @ 9X @ 2@ (((( 9 t 22 9X xxxx 9X 53535533 AAAA 2222CCCC 2222 VuVuVuVuVtVtVVtt 5b5b5b5bXGBGBGGBB 5R5R5R5RD9D9D9D9GBGBGGBB 5R5R5R5R5u5u5u5uCCCC83838383VRVRVVRR y 9X 9 @ 2@ tttt (( 22 3333CC5555CC 5544545453535353CCDDDCDCBBBB3333 [email protected] @3333AAAA 52522255CCCC 52525252VuVuVVuu )s ((@ 2@ @@ 9X 9X 54545544 9999 D2D222DDBBDDDBDBBBBB8383838355RR5R5RQQQQ13131313VIVIVVII 55bb5b5bX8B8B8B8B777755CC55CC 3333 bbbb VbVbVVbb )q 9X rrrr 9
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. developmental deficits family instability psychopathology and criminality in the biological family either inhibited or under controlled temperaments in childhood. Adolescents who suffer depression will have: low self-esteem pervasive sadness hopelessness helplessness (Craighead & Green). Suicide among young people nationwide has increased dramatically in recent years. In a national survey of high school students in 1995: 24% said that they had thought seriously about attempting suicide at some point during past year 18 % indicated they had even made specific plans (Center for Disease Control, 1996c) Suicide is the third leading cause of death among 15-to-19-year-olds, being responsible for 14% of all deaths in that age group (National Center for Health Statistics, 1991). The number of suicide attempts peaks between ages 15 and 24 (Schuckit & Schuckit, 1989). During the last decades, suicide rates have increased considerably among children younger than 15 years of age (Center for Disease Control& Prevention, 1997). 40% of depressed adolescents reported suicidial ideation (Lewinsohn, 1998). The following precursors may contribute to adolescents' suicide: experiencing strong feelings of stress, confusion, self-doubt pressure to succeed financial uncertainty other fears while growing up. 1. Change in eating and sleeping habits
Withdrawal from friends, family, and regular activities. Violent actions, rebellious behavior, or running away. Drug and alcohol use. Unusual neglect of personal appearance Marked personality changes. 7. Persistent boredom, difficulty concentrating, or a decline in the quality of schoolwork. 8. Loss of interest in pleasurable activities. 9. Cannot tolerate praise or rewards. 10. Frequent complaints about physical symptoms, often related to emotions, such as stomach aches, headaches, fatigue, etc. 2 TT@ 2@ T@ @ X 6X X 55BB5B5B5454545455335533 [email protected] 22VVV2V2DBDBBBDD5B5B55BB 553353534444 0000 0000 @D3D333DD 22DDD2D2DBDBBBDDBBBB83838383RRRR5Q5Q55QQ 55335353AAAA 5 CCCC 22225544545466XWWWW 55RR5R5R53533355GAGAGGAA 5R5RRR559999 BBBB 121212121I1I1I1IRRRR6666 000059595959QQQQ 12121212)v ' @ 2@ T 22 6 x@ 6@ xx 66 545454549999 28288282777754545544 [email protected]@5555 4444 2222 00555500 333355BB55BB 545454545u5u55uu 19191919)s x@ 6@ @@ @ xxxx `@ [email protected] 4444 G2G2G2G257575577 GG66G6G67777 2222QQQQ 52525252CCCC83838383VRVRVVRR )q ``@ ` I@ II 5B5B55BB 333355CCCC5554545544 GG33G3G35R5R55RR 3333 bbbb bbbb [email protected] 5252525244448U8U8U8UV7V7VV77 )c I@ rrrr @ X CCX GFGFFGFG757557574444 55995959CCX X 5B5B5B5B5555BBBB 55553333535353535C5C5C5C5C5C5C5C444444448383838383838383RRRRRRRR33333333 bbbbbbbb bbbbbbbb 12121212121212121I1I1I1I1I1I1I1IRRRRRRRR53535353333355555555AAAA5555AAAA 545454545454545433333333 SH P `h `h GBGBGGBB 55RR5R5RG9G9GG99 557757575C5C5C5C6666hgggg BBBB 12121212)e `h ffff ` Males, in general, are more impulsive and violent than females that lead them to choose lethal methods. Females are more willing to seek out and use interpersonal supports than males. Black students report fewer suicidal thoughts or attempts than either White or Hispanic students (Center for Disease Control 1996c). Native Americans have the highest rate in suicide, however, large differences exist between tribes. E.g., the suicide rate of Navajos is close to that nationally, whereas, the suicide rate among Apaches is more than three times as high (Garland & Zigler, 1993) In general, tribes that are more traditional tend to have lower suicide rates. Rarity of epidemiologic studies of mental distress. 1. Previous suicidal attempt (or attempts) 2.Impulsive, aggressive, or antisocial behavior. 3.Mental illness. 4.Substance abuse. 5.Stressful life events. 6. Access to guns and other lethal methods Two precipitating factors which push the youth to the threshold of suicide behavior: Shameful or humiliating experience Argument or conflict with parent, boyfriend, or girlfriend. Depression and suicidal feelings are treatable mental disorders. If one or more alarming signs occurs, parents need to communicate with their child about their concerns and seek professional help when the concerns persist. The prevention approaches that work best are brief, crisis-oriented, and give adolescents skills they can apply in their ongoing relationships (Harrington, & Dyer, 1995). Family therapy that improves communication within the family is also an effective approach. Teenagers with bipolar disorder may have an ongoing combination of extremely high (manic) and low (depressed) moods. Highs may alternate with lows, or the person may feel both extremes at the same time. Bipolar disorder usually starts in adult life. Although less common, it does occur in teenagers and even rarely in young children. 3 3h 3h 5R5R55RR 33338A8A8A8A55RR5R5R9999BBBB 121212121I1I1I1IRRRR6666 000059595959QQQQ 121212121111 5R5RRR559999 1b1b1b1b57575577 4444hGGaaGaGa57575757666683838383VRVRVVRR TTPH ' 3h TT 3 XB@ Q@ @ 6XWWWW CCXB@ Q@ tt@ 6X BB QQ tt 66 8F8F8F8F777754545544 [email protected]@[email protected] 5252525254544455X)E ' X@ @ @ X Increase in talking FFGGGFGF557757575454545459595599 CCCC55RR5R5R53533355GAGAGGAA 5R5RRR559999 BBBB 121212121I1I1I1IRRRR6666 000059595959QQQQ 12121212y ' FFGGGFGF557757575454545459595599 CCCC55RR5R5R53533355GAGAGGAA 5R5RRR559999 BBBB 121212121I1I1I1IRRRR6666 000059595959QQQQ 12121212)' ' The manic symptoms include: Unrealistic highs in self-esteem Risk factors: 1. Family history of drug or alcohol abuse also may be associated with Bipolar Disorder in teens. 2. Genetic disposition: if one or both parents have Bipolar Disorder, the chances are greater that their children will develop the disorder. Bipolar Disorder may begin either with manic or depressive symptoms Severe changes in mood compared to others of the same age and background either unusually happy or silly, or very irritable, angry, agitated or aggressive. for example, a teenager who feels all powerful or like a superhero with special powers. Great increase in energy and the ability to go with little or no sleep for days without feeling tired. the adolescent talks too much, too fast, changes topics too quickly, and cannot be interrupted. Distractibility- the teen's attention moves constantly from one thing to the next. Repeated high risk-taking behaviors, such as abusing alcohol and drugs, reckless driving, or sexual promiscuity. Treatment for Bipolar Disorder: includes education of the patient and the family about the illness mood stabilizing medication such as lithium and valproic acid psychotherapy. Mood stabilizing medications often reduce the number and severity of manic episodes, and also help to prevent depression. Psychotherapy helps the teenager understand himself/herself, adapt to stresses, rebuild selfesteem, and improve relationships. h Ch FFGGGFGF55775757545454549999 h6666 525252524444838383835R5R55RR UUUU55QQ5Q5Q9999 52525522 55UU5U5UVCVCVVCC )c ' CCh C tttt 6666 525252524444838383835R5R55RR UUUU55QQ5Q5Q9999 52525522 55UU5U5UVCVCVVCC S ' tttt Schizophrenia is a disorder that permeates all aspects of functioning, frequently making it impossible for the person to relate to others. Emotions are frequently inappropriate or blunted, and behavior is often bizarre. Disturbances of thought and perception are common and involve delusions and hallucinations, especially auditory ones (DSM-IV, 1994). Schizophrenia is most likely to occur first in adolescence or early adulthood. Warning signs include becoming shy and withdrawn, or aggressive. The most distinguishing feature of schizophrenia is a disturbance of thought that 4 takes the form of loosely associated and shifting ideas. Approximately of adolescents who have been hospitalized for schizophrenia, recover and another improve with relapses. @ xxxx `@ 8B8B8B8BRRRR8989898977775C5C5C5C56565566 @D3D3D3D3 8282828277775C5C5C5C83838383777789898989VRVRVVRR )e ' ``@ ` Cognitive factors: Belief in self-efficacy Cognitive flexibility Interpersonal problemsolving skills Hopefulness Social factors: strong social supports lack of precipitating life events no losses treatment of psychiatric disorders or personal/family problems. 5 ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/19/2008 for the course FCE 212 taught by Professor Gipson-tansil during the Spring '08 term at Michigan State University.
- Spring '08