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AST MIDTERM - Review Questions for the Midterm-1 Overview...

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Sheet1 Page 1 Review Questions for the Midterm: ---------------------------------------- 1) Overview the major processes of planet formation, starting from the initial protostellar cloud. Nebular Theory: Solar system started from a large nebula (or cloud) of gas and dust [solar nebula - mainly H and He]. The ne ---------------------------------------- 2) What is the difference between proper motion and radial velocity of a star? Proper motion is the actual motion of a star on the sky. As we have said, all stars move. The ones that are closer and the one Radial velocity - measure of how fast/slow a star is moving directly towards or away from us. Moving along radius! Red/bluesh ---------------------------------------- 3) Why is a sidereal day different from a solar day? Sidereal refers to stars, solar refers to the Sun. A sidereal day is the time it takes for a star to be in the exact same position it ---------------------------------------- 4) Describe the observable consequences of Kepler's 2nd Law (equal areas, equal time). Planets move faster when they are closer to the thing they are orbiting. (also a consequence of angular momentum - velocity ---------------------------------------- 5) Why were Galileo's discovery of the phases of Venus important? We had different view "geocentric" where earth is center and everything revolved around it. Galileo made new model (based o ---------------------------------------- 6) Overview the reason for the tidal bulge on Earth and why the Moon is getting farther away from us every year. Tides are due to the Moon's orbit about the Earth. The Moon distorts the Earth and causes a tidal bulge. This distortion is due The Sun also causes tides but at a much lower level. We only notice them when the Sun and Moon are on the same line since ---------------------------------------- 7) Why does our atmosphere let some light through and not others? Does not let UV rays, gamma, xrays through Allows radio, infrared (some), optical Some wavelengths/photons can get through certain molecules Others interact (scattering, etc.) ---------------------------------------- 8) How do we measure a doppler shift? It tells us how fast an object is moving away from us. If an object is moving, that motion causes the wavelength that that objec ^...>^ <-- change (redshift) ^<..^ <-- change (blueshift) ---------------------------------------- 9) Explain the difference between an absorption spectrum and an emission spectrum. An absorption spectrum results from when a continuous spectrum shines through some type of medium. For example, if we w Missing piece is characteristic of what the gas cloud is made of. VV vs ^^ ---------------------------------------- 10) Why couldn't our solar system form Jupiter at the location of Earth's orbit? Jupiter is made of H He gas (main difference from Earth). Our orbit is closer to sun, sun = heat, heat on jupiter is a lot less, at H gas in atmosphere of earth gets hit by sun photon and leaves atmosphere in jupiter, does not hit escape velocity and doesnt reach escape velocity distance from the sun where H can stay in atmosphere of the planet = frost line ----------------------------------------
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Sheet1 Page 2 11) Explain why the Sun is not rotating as fast as it would have been according to the amount of angular momentum that it ori The process that the Sun used is called magnetic braking. It is a result of the large magnetic field generated in the Sun and th
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