Study Guide - Midterm 1

Study Guide - Midterm 1 - Study Guide Gov 4 Midterm I...

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Study Guide: Gov 4 Midterm I ZAKARIA: “The Future of Freedom” - Democracy must be preceded by constitutional liberalism o Democracy= competitive/multiparty elections o Constitutional liberalism= protection of basic rights (religion, speech, travel, press) under the law o Sometimes new democracies are only sham-democracies with illiberal dictators pretending to be elected to power - The Catholic Church (undemocratic) challenged/limited political authority and thus brought about constitutional liberalism o Opposed state power o Control of all social institutions across Europe (marriage, death, etc.) o Too powerful to be conquered - In the last 50 years economic success has occurred under “liberal authoritarian” regimes; not democracies o India- democratic, although failing human development o South Korea, Taiwan- liberalized economy, legal system, rights of worship and travel… then later held free elections o China- introduced capitalism, then democracy - Liberalizing autocracies better establish the conditions for liberal democracy than do illiberal democracies o Dictators open economy… leads to political liberalism o Ex.- Musharraf is a dictator but his society is modern/secular
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- British imperial rule left a political legacy on former colonies that facilitates the establishment of liberal democracy o Left legacy of capitalism and law which helped establish liberal democracy o Ex.- South Asia, Caribbean, New Zealand - Economic and political independence of bourgeoisie is essential to establish liberal democracy - Democracy survives best in countries with a per capita GDP of $3000 to $6000 o Countries need skills/strengths to sustain democracy o Ex.- 1989: Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary democratized quickly whereas Romania, Albania did not o Wealth: creates independent/powerful bourgeoisie and states become more responsive to citizens needs (unintentional liberalization) - Oil and mineral wealth are a curse to liberal democracy even in rich countries o Prevents development of institutions, laws, bureaucracies o Governments with natural resources don’t need citizens to get rich as a means for wealth (taxation and representation relationship is important) - China is a more promising location for liberal democracy in the future than Russia o China started with economic reform; Russia with political o Russia: rich country (from natural resources) trying to modernize, liberal in theory but not practice, corrupt government o China: developing middle class but still controlled by Communist Party - Political parties are necessary for democracy to effectively represent citizens’ demands and values o Mobilize and institutionalize values and goals - Presidential systems are more prone to illiberal democracy than are other regime types
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o Believe they speak for the nation, fill cabinets with like-minded advisors, often bypass bargaining with legislature (usurpation) - Centralized governments are more prone to illiberalism than are decentralized systems o “decentralized government helps produce limited government”
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This note was uploaded on 10/30/2008 for the course GOVT 004 taught by Professor Carey during the Fall '07 term at Dartmouth.

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Study Guide - Midterm 1 - Study Guide Gov 4 Midterm I...

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