Fatty Acids copy 1 - Fatty Acids Kho Kashfi, PhD, MSc, LRSC...

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Unformatted text preview: Fatty Acids Kho Kashfi, PhD, MSc, LRSC QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime and a Photo - JPEG decompressor are needed to see this picture. Quick GIF de are nee Significance of Fatty Acid Metabolism QuickTime 4 and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Fatty acids are taken up by cells, where they may serve as precursors in the synthesis of other compounds, as fuels for energy production, and as substrates for ketone body synthesis. Ketone bodies may then be exported to other tissues, where they can be used for energy production. In addition, some cells synthesize fatty acids for storage or export. Significance of Fatty Acid Metabolism Intermediates in Synthesis Fatty acids are intermediates in the synthesis of other important compounds. Examples include: Phospholipids (in membranes). Eicosanoids, including prostaglandins and leucotrienes, which play a role in physiological regulation. Significance of Fatty Acid Metabolism Diseases Some diseases involve disturbances in fatty acid metabolism. These include: Diabetes mellitus Specific disorders of fatty acid oxidation, such as Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Reye Syndrome, which might be related to a deficiency of medium chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase, an important enzyme of fatty acid oxidation Lipids and Membranes Lipids are essential components of all living organisms Lipids are water insoluble organic compounds They are hydrophobic (nonpolar) or amphipathic (containing both nonpolar and polar regions ) Structural and Functional Diversity of Lipids Fatty acids- R-COOH (R=hydrocarbon chain) are components of triacylglycerols , glycerophospholipids , sphingolipids Phospholipids- contain phosphate moieties Glycosphingolipids- contain both sphingosine and carbohydrate groups Isoprenoids- (related to the 5 carbon isoprene) include steroids, lipid vitamins and terpenes Structural relationships of major lipid classes Fatty Acids Fatty acids (FA) differ from one another in: (1) Length of the hydrocarbon tails (2) Degree of unsaturation (double bond) (3) Position of the double bonds in the chain General Features of Fatty Acid Structure QuickTime w and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. There are two essential features: 1. A long hydrocarbon chain The chain length ranges from 4 to 30 carbons; 12-24 is most common. The chain is typically linear, and usually contains an even number of carbons. 2. A carboxylic acid group Carbon-Carbon Double Bonds Carbon-carbon double bonds (unsaturations) are found in naturally occurring FA. 1 C=C (most prevalent in humans) or many, up to six in important fatty acids....
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Fatty Acids copy 1 - Fatty Acids Kho Kashfi, PhD, MSc, LRSC...

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