Unformatted text preview: The Play Years and The School Age Years:
Biosocial and Cognitive Development
(text: pp. 219-228; 231-253; 295-304; 307-317) The The Play Years: Ages 2-6 School Years: Ages 7-11 Biosocial Development Between ages 2-6 rapid growth, but rate slows down from infancy; brain development continues—better coordination of left and right hemispheres, less impulsivity 7-11 growth is even slower; brain maturation continues—faster reactions, selective attention, self control, automatization (sequences are routine) Between A Typical 6-year old: At least 3 ½ feet tall Weighs between 40-50 pounds Looks lean, lowest body fast (5-6) Has adult like body proportions (legs are half of total height)
– But, most fatal childhood diseases and accidents occur before age 7 A Typical 11-year old Healthiest span Rate of growth slows Muscles are stronger—easy mastery of all life skills that don’t require full size (riding a bike)
– – – But, obesity on the rise 13% have health needs (e.g., asthma) Special needs (learning) most likely to be detected period of the entire life Focus on Prevention of Problems Injury control (unintentional and intentional) abuse and maltreatment Child Play years: More vulnerable to injuries and abuse than school years and older. Why? More impulsive More dependent on others – Accidental injuries are 4 times as likely as death from cancer (leading disease of play years) – Leading cause of accidental (unintentional) death for age group is? ……. Intentional Injury Child maltreatment: Intentional harm to or avoidable endangerment of anyone under 18 years of age (approx. 3 million cases reported in U.S.—1/3 substantiated)
– Abuse: deliberate action that is harmful to a child’s physical, emotional, or sexual well being – Neglect: Failure to meet a child’s basic physical, educational, or emotional needs Factors Contributing to Child Abuse Parental characteristics
– – – – – – – younger age low education depression or other psychological disturbance history of abuse belief in coercive methods general insecurity distorted perception of child’s behavior irritable or impulsive temperament hyperactivity prematurity illness Child characteristics
– – – – Factors Contributing to Child Abuse Family characteristics
– – – – – financial strain/ poverty (I.e., unemployment, poverty) job loss frequent moves marital instability divorce Neighborhood
– high risk areas w/ few community resources Culture
– approval of coercive methods of resolving conflicts Some Consequences of Abuse Death Issues with intellectual development and academic achievement Problems regulating emotions More aggressive and exhibit more behavioral problems Inappropriate sexual behavior How can we impact both type of injury? Injury prevention: Examples? – Primary (universal) – Secondary (selective) – Tertiary (indicated) Children with Special Needs Most likely to be identified during the school years. Why?
– Exception: Autism, typically identified around ages 1-2, typical onset before age 3 Autism Autism is a Spectrum disorder and goes from very low functioning to very high functioning) (Asperger’s Symdrome) 4-5 times more prevalent in males than in females Affects 1 in 500 children and is increasing Examples of behavior: Inflexibility to change routines and rituals as well as repetitive motor mannerisms (self stimulatory behaviors). Also have obsessive-compulsive components of behavior and persistent preoccupation with parts of objects (such as shoelaces). Autistic children are also deficient in play, motor skills (jumping), self-help perspective taking, and theory of mind and other areas. Autistic children have excesses in noncompliance, tantrums and aggression. School Years: Special Needs ADHD: —inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity; 5% diagnosed with ADHD (6-9 times more boys than girls) Complicated diagnosis-source of much controversy—why? Symptoms most easily observed when required to do adult-like tasks —diagnosis around ages 7-10, peak at age 8 Learning disability Marked delay in a particular area of learning that is not caused by physical disabilities (i.e., retardation) or extreme environmental stress.
– Dyslexia (unusual difficulty reading)-different forms, originates with speech and hearing problems – Public laws regarding equal treatment: IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act-PL 105-17) guarantees IEP, parents rights, disabilities not handicaps Cognitive Development: Ages 2-11 Student Questions I’m curious about how children learn to lie—is it an innate mechanism to avoid punishment/undesirable outcomes, or is it learned from models such as parents, siblings, and peers? is the function of children’s play, including pretend play, and does it help with early cognitive development?
– Early development involves bridges between real and fantasy worlds/ opportunities for rehearsal, images to What Piaget’s Stage TheoryPreoperational Stage Age range: About 2 to 6 years Description of Stage: Representing things with words and images but lacking logical reasoning (beyond senses and motor skills); includes language, imagination Developmental Milestones
– Egocentrism – Ability to Pretend Piaget’s Stage TheoryConcrete Operational Age Range: About 7 to 11 years Description of Stage: Thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations Developmental Milestones
– Conservation (can’t do in preoperational) – Mathematical transformations/reversibility Comparing Piaget (individual/maturational) to Vygotsky (social context/culture) Vygotsky – Emphasizes social—cognition embedded in social context – Guided participation-mentors – Scaffolding-support to master skills – Zone of proximal development—skills individual is close to mastering – Language as tool—private speech Theory of Mind Theory of what other people might be thinking —realize that they don’t have to think what you do.
– Strengthens around age 4: children begin to understand that people’s thoughts and beliefs affect their behaviors and that people can have beliefs that simply do not reflect reality (maturation of prefrontal cortex) – Candy box experiment (children expect candy, see pencils, what do they think next child expects – candy or pencils?) How is this related to lying?—they get better with increasing theory of mind (younger are bad at deception, hide in the same place) What are implications for education? Children need to discover ideas at their own pace (Piaget) Children learn from other children with adult guidance (Vygotsky)
– Leads to child centered programs, particularly for early childhood education Montesorri: children need structured, individualized projects that give them a sense of accomplishment Piaget or Vygotsky? Cooperative learning—Piaget or Vygotsky? ...
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- Fall '08
- Developmental Psychology, Psychological abuse