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Unformatted text preview: Adolescence: Biosocial and Cognitive Development Body Height and Weight Another brief growth spurt comes during adolescence What are eating disorders? Eating disorders often are long-term illnesses
that may require long-term treatment. In addition, eating disorders frequently occur with other mental disorders such as depression, substance abuse, and anxiety disorders. The most common eating disorders are anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder. The earlier these disorders are diagnosed and treated, the better the chances are for full recovery. Anorexia (Diagnostic criteria) Must have all of the following: Refusal to maintain body weight less than 85% of
expected for age/height Intense fear of gaining weight Disturbance in experience of body shape Absence of at least three consecutive menstrual
cycles Bulimia (Diagnostic criteria) Must have all of the following: Recurrent episodes of binge eating Recurrent inappropriate compensatory behaviors to prevent weight gain (typically purging; could be compulsive exercise) Binge eating and compensatory behaviors occur on average at least twice a week for 3 months Self evaluation unduly influenced by body shape and weight Disturbance does not occur exclusively during episodes of anorexia nervosa Who has eating disorders/prevalence Affect an estimated 5-8 million persons in the U.S. each year; point prevalence ranges from 0.5 4% depending on disorder. Research shows that more than 90 percent of those who have eating disorders are women between the ages of 12 and 25 ; however seen as early as age 8 More than 75% are adolescent when they first manifest the eating disorder; 95% of the patients are white. However, increasing numbers of middle aged and older women have these disorders. In addition, hundreds of thousands of boys are affected by these disorders. What are risk factors for developing an eating disorder? Female sex Middle-class or upper-class socioeconomic status Family history of eating disorder (genetic basis; set point) Participation in activities valuing thinness (e.g., sports, dance, modeling)-but not for binge-eating disorder Unsuccessful attempts at dieting and weight loss History of sexual abuse Family issues (e.g., separation difficulties, over involvement, abandonment) Psychiatric comorbidity Additional Risk Factors Specific to Anorexia Highly emotionally reserved High cognitive inhibition Prefer routine and predictable environments Adapt poorly to change Heightened conformity and deference to others Avoid risk and experience high stress-related distress Focus on perfectionism (also for bulimia) Body Image Questionnaire
When you look in the mirror what do you see? When you walk past a shop window and catch a glimpse of your body, what do you notice first? Are you proud of what you see, or do you think, "I'm too short, I'm too fat, if only I were thinner or more muscular?" Most people answer negatively. Take the following quiz and see how your Body Image I.Q. measures up. Have you avoided sports or working out because you didn't want to be seen in gym clothes? Does eating even a small amount of food make you feel fat? Do you worry or obsess about your body not being small, thin or good enough? Are you concerned your body is not muscular or strong enough? Do you avoid wearing certain clothes because they make you feel fat? Do you feel badly about yourself because you don't like your body? Have you ever disliked your body? Do you want to change something about your body? Do you compare yourself to others and "come up short?" How can we prevent eating disorders? In the home--limit emphasis on physical appearance; encourage acceptance; teach healthy eating; serve healthy meals; communicate with children; pay attention to warning signs. At a societal level, challenge images of thinness and importance of physical appearance Sexual Maturation Puberty Defined as time between first hormonal
changes and full adult development Rapid physical growth Sexual maturation Heightened emotions Sexual desires Begins with marked increase in hormones (male and female) Onset of sexual maturity Timing Genetics Environment Parent-child relationships Early Maturation Boys vs. Girls Is puberty a time of stress? Why? Is early
puberty linked to stress? Pubertal Development: Females
10 years- breast buds 11 years- pubic hair appears 12-13 years- underarm hair 13 years- breasts enlarge 13-14 years- menarche: time of first menstruation 14 years- pubic hair becomes more dense 15 years- breasts & pubic hair coverage mature Pubertal Development: Males 11 years- scrotum and testes begin to grow 12 years- pubic hair begins to appear 13 years- spermarche: first ejaculation containing semen 14 years- underarm and facial hair appear 15 years- penis, testes fully developed; pubic hair coverage complete Primary Sex Characteristics --Changes directly associated with sexual reproduction Secondary Sex Characteristics --Changes indirectly associated with sexual reproduction Brain The Teenage Brain: True or False
1. The size of our brain doesn't change much after childhood.
2. The connections between brain cells grow quickly in childhood but by the teenage years there are too many connections and we start getting rid of the ones we don't use. 3. Our brains are completely developed by the time we are 18. 4. Teenagers and young adults think with the instinctual or emotional part of the brain; adults think with the rational part of their brain. 5. Teenagers and young adults are more likely to take risks when their friends are with them. Adolescent thinking is characterized by social egocentrism Focus on self, belief that one's experiences are unique and better than anyone else's--that everyone is watching (David Elkind) Invincibility fable: Belief that one is invincible Imaginary audience: Belief that everyone is watching But cognitive development.... Moves toward formal operations, no longer limited by personal experience and concrete events, now moves into abstract thinking--ability to imagine possibilities, think logically. Deductive reasoning: top-down, from premise to specifics Inductive reasoning: bottom-up, from experience to general conclusion. That's All for Today! ...
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- Fall '08