Unformatted text preview: Adolescence: Psychosocial Development Identity Who am I? Erikson: Primary crisis of adolescence Identity vs. diffusion Look at combination of commitment and exploration for statuses Four Identity Statuses (Marcia) Achieved: understand self as a unique individual, link past and future Diffusion: do not know or care about identity Foreclosure: premature identity formation Moratorium: postpone making identity choices (going to college) Identity across different domains: Religious Sexual Political Ethnic Vocational How do we study identity development? Why does it matter? Peers and Friends Peers and Friends This topic includes many processes and outcomes studied at different ages: Play (toddlers/preschool) Peer status (elementary/middle school) Bullies/victims(elementary/middle school) Friendship (elementary/middle school) Cliques and crowds (middle/high school) Romantic relationships (middle/high school) What is a peer? "one that is of equal standing with another" individuals who for the moment at least, are operating at similar levels of behavioral complexity (Lewis & Rosenblum, 1975) How does early peer influence develop? Recognize others as social partners ~612 months Turn and roletaking exchanging ~1324 months Share meaning w/peers ~ 2536 months How Important are Peer Influences? Does family "matter" or only peer influences? Both sameage and mixedage interactions are important for development Peers as reinforcers, instructors, and models Peers as bar for social comparison Peers as Play Partners
How do young children engage other children in play? Solitary playalone Parallel play Associative play Cooperative Play (ages 34) What is the function of play? Learn how to interact with others Learn how to share Learn reciprocity Learn how to obey rules Peer Acceptance How is it measured? sociometric technique: children asked to nominate classmates they like and dislike votes tallied for each child Peer Acceptance Liked or popular: mostly positive ratings attractive, do well in school, good social skills Rejected, disliked, or unpopular: mostly negative ratings aggressive, disruptive, lack social skills describe themselves as lonely Peer Acceptance Controversial: both positive and negative ratings highly talkative, socially active, can be disruptive & hot tempered Neglected: neither positive nor negative ratings shy and withdrawn don't describe themselves as lonely Four Status Groups LOW HIGH LOW Neglected Rejected HIGH Popular
Controversial Victims and Bullies Incidence 15% of kids victims 9% of kids bullies Behaviors can be physical, emotional, or verbal How does bullying change from childhood to adolescence? Conceptions of Friendship Conceptions of Friendship
Factors that influence the formation of friendships Early childhood pleasurable play and sharing of toys Middle childhood mutually agreed upon relationships cliques: small group of 3 to 9 who are close friends number of friends narrows Conceptions of Friendship Adolescence built on intimacy and loyalty cliques crowds: cliques with similar norms and values Advantages to Having Friends Friends as providers of security and social support higher self esteem higher prosocial behaviors better coping with stress less loneliness and depression Friends as contributors to social problemsolving skills Friendships as preparation for adult love relationships Romantic Relationships during Adolescence What should we teach about in schools? Sex education Relationship education How do adolescents learn about romantic relationships? Peer Pressure Encouragement to conform with one's friends or peers in behavior, dress, attitude, usually considered a negative force Deviancy training Influence of antisocial peers Do antisocial peers seek each other out or... (selection) Does hanging out with antisocial peers make one more antisocial? (facilitation) Adolescent Risk Behaviors Highrisk sexual behavior Early school leaving Drug abuse Violence (suicide)/delinquency How can we prevent adolescent risk behaviors? Primary (universal) Secondary (selected) Tertiary (indicated) ...
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- Fall '08
- Developmental Psychology, Interpersonal relationship, Peer group, Identity formation, antisocial peers