2 - Chapter 2 Scientific Methods in Psychology Thinking...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 2 Scientific Methods in Psychology Thinking Critically and Evaluating Evidence Psychology is a science. This chapter is about how we utilize scientific methods in evaluating claims and theories in psychology. Scientific Methods in Psychology 1. Define the question 2. Gather information and resources 3. Form hypothesis 4. ________________ 5. Analyze data 6. Interpret data and draw conclusions that serve as a starting point for new hypotheses 7. ________________ The Scientific Method Why do we need it? It is almost impossible to ______ any individual claim or theory is true The scientific method allows us to declare our conclusions to be probable to the point where it is reasonable to treat them as factual . Scientific Theories What is a theory? A theory is : A good theory makes precise and consistent predictions Scientific Theories The importance of falsifiability and ____________ A theory that makes precise predictions is falsifiable because it is easy to think of evidence that would confirm or contradict the theory. Reliance on the fewest and simplest possible assumptions is called ____________ , and is considered an essential strength of good scientific theory. Scientific Theories 1. Problems must be solvable and falsifiable "Wilma sat staring at me, eyes intense. "I've been waiting for today," she whispered. "Waiting till he'd get a haircut, and he finally did." Again she leaned toward me, eyes big, her voice a hissing whisper. "There's a little scar on the back of Ira's neck; he had a boil there once, and your father lanced it. You can't see the scar," she whispered, "when he needs a haircut. But when his neck is shaved, you can. Well, today -- I've been waiting for this! -- today he got a haircut --" I sat forward, suddenly excited, "And the scar's gone ? You mean --" "No!" she said, almost indignantly, eyes flashing. "It's there -- the scar -- exactly like Uncle Ira's!"-Invasion of the Body Snatchers Scientific theories 2. Insists on Systematic Empiricism 3. Manipulate, and measure _______________ Psychology as Science 4. Parsimonious Occams Razor All things being equal, the simplest solution tends to be the best one. Psychology as Science 5. Publicly Verifiable Knowledge Journals are "the most successful and ubiquitous carriers of scientific information in the entire history of science" (Kessler 1967). Psychology as Science 6. Cumulative Build upon previous results Why go to all this trouble? The Scientific Method Whats the hypothesis? Claim: There is a relationship between televised violence and aggressive behavior. The Scientific Method The importance of replication Testing of hypotheses must be repeated....
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This note was uploaded on 10/30/2008 for the course PSY 200 taught by Professor Craig during the Spring '08 term at N.C. State.

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2 - Chapter 2 Scientific Methods in Psychology Thinking...

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