The Progression of Cloning

The Progression of Cloning - The Progression of Cloning...

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The Progression of Cloning Cloning may have been thought of as an impossible fantasy sixty years ago, but now it is no longer a fantasy. The concept of cloning has crossed the barrier between science fiction and reality. Actually, cloning has been around longer than most people think. There are various definitions of a clone. One definition is, a group of organisms that come from one organism as a result of asexual reproduction. An example of this type of cloning can be seen in the water hyacinth plant (Cohen 10). The everyday common potato is cloned through this process as well (Kidd 108). Animals, however, have been less known to clone themselves. A scientific discovery in 1934 involving a species of fish that was all female changed that notion. The name of the fish was the Amazon molly. After the discovery of this type of fish, amphibians, reptiles, and other fish have been found to clone themselves through asexual reproduction (Cohen 11). Recently, the cloning of animals has become fairly common. However, the process of cloning an animal is still hard work. Most attempts at cloning animals result in failure. This often happens because the embryonic cell that is used is too mature (Kidd 109). An embryo is defined as a “very young organism in the early stages of development, before it emerges from the egg or seed or is born from its mother” (Snedden 45). For a successful clone to be created, the cell and its nucleus must be taken out from the embryo very early in its development. Soon after the cell divides, the cells take on specialized functions. If the cell of an embryo is too far along its development when it is transferred, the cell cannot divide properly and a suitable infant will not be created (Kidd 109). To understand cloning it is first necessary to know the events that occurred in the field
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of genetics, which led to major breakthroughs in cloning. It all started with an Austrian monk named Gregor Mendel. In 1856 Mendel started experiments breeding different peas. This helped him to discover the laws of heredity. In 1858 Charles Darwin announced his theory of Natural Selection. This theory states that organisms that are better suited for their environment will live longer and pass their characteristics on to the next generation. In 1859 Darwin published his book The Origin of Species . In 1871 Nitrogen and phosphorous material were discovered in cell nuclei, which later became known as DNA. In 1902 Chromosomes were discovered to be the things that hold genes when cells divide in the process of heredity. In the 1920s major parts of chromosomes were shown to be DNA. In 1953 biologists James Watson and Francis Crick proclaim the structure of DNA to be a double helix. They also explained how DNA copies itself. In 1954 George Gamow claims the genetic code is the order of triplets of bases that are in DNA. In 1956 humans are discovered to have 23 pairs of chromosomes. In 1958 Geneticists show the actions of genes are the result of chemical
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The Progression of Cloning - The Progression of Cloning...

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