The term "marketing mix" became popular after Neil H. Borden published his
The Concept of the Marketing Mix
. Borden's marketing mix included
"product planning, pricing, branding, distribution channels, personal selling, advertising,
promotions, packaging, display, servicing, physical handling, and fact finding and
analysis." E. Jerome McCarthy grouped these items into what is now known as the four
P's product, price, place, and promotion. (www.netmba.com) These four P's are the
factors that the marketing manager can control, depending on the internal and external
limitations of the marketing environment.
The goal is to make decisions that center the
four P's on the customers in the target market in order to create a positive response.
The first element of the marketing mix is product.
The term "product" refers to
tangible, physical products as well as services.
Some of the product decisions include
"brand name, functionality, styling, quality, safety, packaging, warranty, and accessories
or services." (www.netmba.com) An important thing to remember about this element is
that you cannot develop products and then try to sell them to a mass market.
You have to
study the wants and needs of the consumers in your target market and then draw these
consumers in with something they want.
You have to find out what people want and
produce that product.
Since starting college, I realized that I would be needing a lot of textbooks. Some
of the books I needed were not always available at the school’s bookstore. So, I decided
to try my luck online. I found that the website www.half.com was extremely useful for
me in getting my books. It also allowed me to get my books earlier than I could at the
bookstore. This is a good example of providing a product that the customers in the target
The second element in the marketing mix is price.