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life 15 - Life 15 Life Chapter 15 Cell Signaling and...

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Life 15 Life Chapter 15: Cell Signaling and Communication I. What are signals and how do cells respond to them? Cell must have a receptor to study. A. Cells receive signals from the physical environment and from other cells In a large multicellular organism, chemical signals made by the body reach a target cell by local diffusion or circulation. Autocrine signals diffuse to, and affect the cells that make them while paracrine signals diffuse to and affect nearby cells. Hormones are signals to distant cells by circulatory system B. A signal transduction pathway involves a signal, a receptor, transduction, and effects Signal transduction pathway entire signaling process, with two parts: receptor and responder i. Receptor This is the first component. The receptor protein (transmembrane protein) extends through the bacterium’s plasma membrane into the space between plasma membrane and porous outer membrane forming a complex with cell wall. When a change in solute concentration occurs, it changes in conformation in intermembrane and plasma membrane to expose an active site and phosphorylates self. ii. Responder -phosphorylation changes shape of protein again and now binds to a second protein, which takes the phosphate. The second protein’s shape changes and this is important in signaling because: signal on
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