Biology 120 Final

Biology 120 Final - Chapter 1 1 hierarchy of biological...

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Chapter 1 1. hierarchy of biological organization -biosphere, ecosystem, community, population, organisms, organs/organ systems, tissues, cells, organelles, molecules 2. producers/ consumers -producers: photosynthetic, convert light to chemicals -consumers: heterotrophic, feed on producers and/or other consumers 3. 2 types of organisms 1) prokaryotes: -(Domain) Bacteria and Archaea -unicellular, small -no nucleus -no membrane-bound organelles 2) eukaryotes -(Domain) Eukarya -nucleus -membrane-bound organelles 4. genes -genome: the completion of organism’s genes 5. emergent properties: w/ each step upward, new properties emerge due to the specific arrangement and interaction of parts 6. reductionism: reducing complex system to simpler version 7. feedback regulations -self-regulatory mechanism controlled by products 1) positive feedback: accumulation of products speeds up the process 2) negative feedback: accumulation of products slows down the process -most of bio systems 8. Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species 9. Evolution -Darwin 1) descent with modification -unity in kinship: common ancestor -diversity in the modifications: speciation 2) natural selection a) individual variation b) competition/overproduction c) unequal reproductive success d) evolutionary adaptations -environment favors certain traits -occurs when natural selection causes changes in relative frequencies of alleles in the gene pool -adaptive radiation: emergence of new species from a common ancestor Ex) Galapagos finches Ex) Hawaiian archipelago 10. Science 1) reasoning
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a) induction: specific → general b) deduction: general → specific 2) method: hypothesis → experiment → conclusion -hypothesis: testable, falsifiable, and repeatable 3) theory: broader than hypothesis -general; produce hypothesis -a lot of evidence! Chapter 24 1. microevolution: changes confined to one pool; macroevolution: beyond species level (mutation, natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow) 2. speciation: new species emerge -species: members are able to reproduce vital and fertile offspring -species concept a) biological -prezygotic: habitat isolation, temporal isolation, mechanical isolation, behavioral isolation, gametic isolation -postzygotic: hybrid breakdown, reduced hybrid viability, reduced hybrid fertility -limit: difficult to use it to many sexual and asexual organisms b) morphological -body size, shape, structural features c) phylogenetic -genetic history: physical characteristics and molecular sequences -reveals sibling species (not related; they just appear similar) d) ecological -ecological niche of species e) paleontological -fossil record a) allopatric: geological barrier b) sympatric: no geological barrier -occurs through: genetic drift, mutations, changes in sexual selection, different selective pressures -poliploidy: results in extra sets of chromosomes -autoploidy: extra set of chromosomes from same species -alloployploidy: extra set of chromosomes from different species -habitat differentiation: offspring exploits resources not used by parent species; results in
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This note was uploaded on 10/31/2008 for the course BISC 120 taught by Professor Webb,wetzer,? during the Fall '07 term at USC.

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Biology 120 Final - Chapter 1 1 hierarchy of biological...

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