Anthropology_notes

Anthropology_notes - 1 Anthropology Study of humans(Latin...

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Anthropology – Study of humans (Latin Man/Study of) Franz Boas – Father of Anthropology (Latin Whole) Holistic Science – Studies the whole of the human condition A comparison of similarities and differences Four subfields of anthropology Archaeology – Unwritten human history (Artifacts) Linguistics – Human language Physical Anthropology – Human Biology (Evolution) Cultural Anthropology – Human Culture Research Method Participant Observation Research – “in the field” research Two types of anthropologists Applied – lay audience Theoretical – Communicate only with other anthropologists Two types of ethnographies Synchronic Ethnography Diachronic Ethnography – Shows a group of people over a long period of time Culture – learned as a member of society and taught to others in that society Biology and culture involved in our survival Reflexive – Being able to look at culture from outside and inside Etic and Emic perspective Etic – Outside Emic – Within Ethnocentrism – Looking at another culture only through the value system of your own. Etic Cultural Relativity – What’s right or wrong in ones culture is only understood through Emic that culture (relative to your own culture.) Economic Systems – How people make a living Foraging – Hunting and gathering (nomadic) (100,000 yrs old) Agriculture – Growing crops and raising animals (stay in same place, farms) (25,000 yrs old) Pastoralism – tend to herds of animals (nomadic) (25,000 yrs old) Capitalism – Work in exchange for money (stay in an area, travel or move for work) (200 yrs old) Power Systems Egalitarian – everybody in society is equal in power Stratified / Hierarchical – people are unequal and have unequal access to power Cultural Change Diffusion – cultural artifact moves into another culture Acculturation – Two cultures are in contact for so long that they both change 2
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Universals – Shows up in every culture but is practiced differently 90% rule states that body can heal itself 90% of the time (placebo affect) Foraging Peoples Oldest economic system (about 100,000 years old ) Gathering Vegetation + Hunting Meat Indigenous / Autochthonous – native to one area Band Societies o Group of people 100 or less who are related through birth or marriage (sometimes turn into tribes descended from one ancestor ) Religion o Polytheism – traditional foraging peoples o Monotheism – 3 major Judaism Christianity Islam o Animisim – Belief that everything has spirit Shaman – Interacts with the spirit world Ju/’hoansi Author: Lee Began his research in 1963 – present Location: Around the southern tip of African Continent Economic System : Foraging (Nomadic People) o Work for 2-4 hours per day 20 hrs/wk
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Anthropology_notes - 1 Anthropology Study of humans(Latin...

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