Unformatted text preview: Introduction to Cultural Geography Chapter 1.3
(Photo: Tiled house in Mexico) Last time we looked at... Places Location Distance Maps Careers in Geography Today we'll explore... More about places Spatial Spatial interaction Diffusion Accessibility Regions Connectivity Distance Decay Places have characteristics. Places have physical structure and a cultural content. Places may change over time. Places have location - relative and absolute. "Location, location, location." Absolute location uses a more conventional
Philadelphia 40 00' N. 75 13' W.
system, such as latitude and longitude. Places interrelate with other places. (Caf in Athens) They interact with other places.
Key concepts in spatial interaction include: Accessibility Connectivity Distance decay
(Denver, CO) How accessible is Europe today? How accessible was it 100 years ago? How accessible was it 200 years ago? Accessibility. Relative ease of reaching a place; the opportunity for spatial interaction. What is connectivity? (Photo: Tokyo) How connected are we to people in California, Italy, the U.K., Japan or Australia? (Perth, Australia) (Internet in Venezuela; Disney Castle, Tokyo) Connectivity refers to all the
connecting links to places.
i.e. all the transportation and communication networks. So, how accessible is downtown Philadelphia? What about Wilmington, the Jersey shore, or New York City? How often would you travel there? (distance decay) So distance decay is...? The dropping off of activity with distance. Question: What is Spatial diffusion? (Caf in Paris) "There is, inevitably, interchange between connected places."
(Malls around the world)
(Photo: Largest mall in Latin America) Answer: "Spatial diffusion
is the process of dispersion of an idea or an item from a center of origin to more distant places."
F.G.G. Commodities go international. European perfumes and furniture are recognized worldwide. Cinema too goes around the world... Regions (Photo: Ecuador) So what are regions?
(Photo from Cypress) Regions have location. Regions have boundaries.
(Although not always sharply delineated... in reality, transition zones.) Regions have spatial extent...
(territories of a uniform feature) i.e. landform, climate, or culture. (Rio de Janeiro) Regions are hierarchically arranged. (Parts of a greater whole.) Regions and their
boundaries are devices of areal generalization, intellectual concepts, rather than visible landscape entities.
F.G.G. There are various types of regions, such as formal regions, example: The United States Formal regions... Functional (nodal) regions, Functional Regions SEPTA map, Philadelphia High-speed rail lines in Europe ...And perceptional (or vernacular) regions. The "Mid-West" as perceived by various geographers Different ways to delineate the "The South." Let's review... Chapter 1 So, how long have people been interested in their world around them? What do we call maps that only portray one phenomena?
A Thematic map What about map distortion, and various projections?
There are at least three typical reasons for distortion: 1) Putting a 3-D object on a 2-D map, 2) Taking a large object and portraying it smaller than life-size, and 3) Manipulation of the way the data is viewed, whether intentional or unintentional. Several newer projections try to minimize distortion of land areas. Some newer maps show cuts in the oceans, to minimize land distortion. What do we call this? A Cartogram What is this? A Mental Map Absolute vs. relative location (Calgary, Alberta, Canada) Absolute vs. relative distance Natural vs. cultural landscape (Cultural landscape - Hong Kong at night) What was Accessibility? Accessibility... the ease of reaching a place.
Or, the opportunity of spatial interaction. What was Connectivity?
(example: Microsoft and the Internet everywhere) Connectivity... -the ease of connection between places. And what was distance decay? The dropping off of activity with distance. There are at least three kinds of regions: Formal Functional Perceptual Discuss what you have learned so far about distortion in maps. ...
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- Summer '07
- Geography, Spatial Interaction, Cultural region, distance decay