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Intracellular Signal Transduction 9-19-08

Intracellular Signal Transduction 9-19-08 - Intracellular...

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Intracellular Signal  Intracellular Signal  Transduction Transduction Dr. McKemy 9/19/08
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Chemical signaling mechanisms Chemical signaling mechanisms Synaptic signaling Paracrine: Secreted molecules act locally. Do not diffuse far. Endocrine: Hormone signaling. Act on targets cells some  distance away. Usually carried by the blood or  other extracellular fluids.
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Amplification in signal transduction pathways Amplification in signal transduction pathways An important property of the activation of cell-surface receptors is the  amplification of the input signal. A single ligand-bound receptor can activate >100 G-proteins. Several hundred cAMP molecules. Down stream, the process can be further amplified.
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Three classes of cell signaling molecules Three classes of cell signaling molecules
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Categories of cellular receptors Categories of cellular receptors
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G-protein coupled receptors G-protein coupled receptors Largest family of cell surface  receptors. 5% of the genes in the nematode  C.  elegans . Over 1000 involved in the sense of  smell alone. Signaling molecules range from  proteins to small peptides, amino acid  derivatives, and fatty acids. Despite their diversity, all have the  same general structure. Span the membrane 7 times.
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