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CH302 - Chemical Kinetics

CH302 - Chemical Kinetics - Chemical Kinetics conc[A All...

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Chemical Kinetics All rates written as Δconc Δtime or Δ[A] Δ t . Instantaneous rate is the slope of a concentration vs time plot and is shown by the differential equation: d[A] d t . Overall rates for forward reactions are shown as POSITIVE rates, therefore, all reactants (which have negative rate of change) must have their rates negated d[A] d t . In general for the overall reation: a A + b B c C + d D overall rxn rate Δ[A] a Δ t = Δ[B] b Δ t = +Δ[C] c Δ t = +Δ[D] d Δ t Note that each individual rate is divided by it’s coef fi cient in the balanced chemical equation. Half-life ( t 1/2 ) : The time it takes for the concentration to drop to one half its current value during the course of the reaction. Note that the “current value” is typically the initial starting value - but not always. Rate Laws for: a A products (all the following equations assume that k is for the overall reaction) Zero Order First Order Second Order rate = ak rate = ak [A] rate = ak [A] 2 [A] 0 ± [A] t = akt ln[A] 0 ± ln[A] t = akt ln [A] 0 [A] ± ²
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