study guide midterm 1

study guide midterm 1 - BILD 1 Midterm ISuggested study...

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BILD 1 Midterm I—Suggested study guide DISCLAIMER: This is by no means an exhaustive list. I reserve the right to test you on anything we talked about in class, on your homework, practice midterm or problem sets. Study in groups—and test yourself! CHAPTER 2: Atoms: atomic #, valence electrons, atomic mass Electronegativity of oxygen and nitrogen Bonds: Covalent (Strong) Polar Covalent Nonpolar Covalent Non-Covalent (Weaker) Hydrogen Bonds VanderWalls Interactions Ionic Bonds CHAPTER 3: Water Know that the polarity of the water molecule is what results in hydrogen bonding Know the properties of water we talked about in class Know the definition of and acid and of a base Know how to calculate pH Know the definition of a buffer and how they work CHAPTER 4 Carbon’s Tetravalence: Why is this important? Types of Isomers: 1) Structural 2) Geometric 3) Enantiomers Functional Groups (See page 58 for structures): 1) Hydroxyl 2) Carbonyl i. Aldehydes ii. Ketones 3) Carboxyl 4) Amino 5) Sulfhydryl 6) Phosphate 7) Amide 8) Hydrocarbon 9) Phenyl CHAPTER 5 Molecular Structures of:
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CARBOHYDRATES Glucose Ring Form - Including the numbering, from 1 to 6, of the carbon ring and the locations (either above or below the molecular plane) of the “–OH” groups in both the Alpha and Beta forms. ALPHA Glucose: The #1 carbon has the hydroxyl group in the “alpha position” (below the plane). Polymers are typically helical and branched. Polymers are used for energy storage. BETA Glucose: The #1 carbon has the hydroxyl group in the “beta position” (above the plane). Polymers are straight and are not branched. The straightness of each polysaccharide allows “3-6” hydrogen bonds between each parallel polysaccharide molecule. This gives great strength to this form of the molecule and allows it to be used as a protective “shell” by plant cells and by a few animals, which use polysaccharides, such as chitin, as their exoskeletal protection! The difference between starch/amylose/amylopectin/glycogen and cellulose/chitin. Glycogen: Storage carbohydrates for all animals. Cellulose: Structural carbohydrate. Used in construction of plant cell walls. Not digestable in humans. Some animals, such as the termite, are able to digest cellulose because they have bacteria in their stomachs, which digest the cellulose for them (bacteria have the enzymes needed to digest cellulose)! LIPIDS
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study guide midterm 1 - BILD 1 Midterm ISuggested study...

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