study_guide_midterm_1

study_guide_midterm_1 - CHAPTER 2: Atoms: atomic #, valence...

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CHAPTER 2 : Atoms: atomic #, valence electrons, atomic mass Electronegativity of oxygen and nitrogen Covalent (Strong) Sharing of electrons Close Polar Covalent Nonpolar Covalent Non-Covalent (Weaker) Hydrogen Bonds VanderWalls Interactions Ionic Bonds CHAPTER 3: Water *** Know that the polarity of the water molecule is what results in hydrogen bonding Properties of Water Solvent: Cohesion/Adhesion: Temperature Moderation: Reduced density when soild: Know the definition of and acid and of a base Acid: Base: pH: 0-6 acidic 7 neutral 8-14 basic pH = -log [H + ] then [H + ] =10 -3 then pH= -log [10 -3 ] =3 (acidic) Know the definition of a buffer and how they work Buffer Accept or release H + in response to pH change --weak acid and weak base CHAPTER 4 Carbon’s Tet r avalence: Does not ionize easily 4 branching points for bonding --caron is versatile
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Bonding of C is compatible w/many elements --H, N, O Types of Isomers: 1) Structural o Different molecular structure 2) Ge o m etric o Different arraignment around a double bond --CIS (same side) --Trans (opposite side) 3) Enantio m e rs o Mirror images of each other --hand analogy Functional G r oups (See page 58 for str u ctures): 1) Hydroxyl 2) Carbonyl i. Aldehydes ii. Ketones 3) Carboxyl 4) Amino 5) Sulfhydryl 6) Phosphate 7) Amide 8) Hydrocarbon 9) Phenyl CHAPTER 5- Macromolecules Small molecules joined to form large molecules Four classes -Lipids -Carbohydrates -Proteins -Nucleic Acids Polymers -made by condensation/hydration rxn -Just remove water -To break, just add water
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LIPIDS: All are hydrophobic Triglycerides Fats -Saturated -Unsaturated -Partially Hydrogenated Oils (trans) Phospholipids -Phospholipid Bilayer Steroids -Cholesterol CARBOHYDATES: (SUGARS) - sugars and the polymers of sugars Monosaccharides -- single sugars (monomers) - (Ch 2 O) n most commn glucose C 6 H 12 O 6 --Classified by: - location of carbonyl group -aldose (where carbonyl is outside chain) -ketose (where carbonyl is inside chain) -Number of C in carbon skeleton -hexose (6 carbons) -Pentose (5 carbons) -Triose (3 carbons) Glucose:  Linear and ring  forms
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Disaccharides - formed by a dehydration (condensation) rxn - joining 2 monosaccharides - Covalent bond is called glycosidic linkage -at the 1-4 carbons Polysaccharides -- long chains of monosaccharides - Two roles: - Storage - glycogen - animals polysaccharide storage - al glucose monomers - starch -plants polysaccharide storage -all glucose monomers - Structure : -cellulose (plant saccharides) -makes up plant cell walls -glucose polymer -glycosidic linkages differ from starch or glycogen -**** -chilin (insects/crustaceons) PROTEINS: Made up of polypeptides -amino acids linked by peptide bonds -Amino acids -molecules w/ carboxyl and amino groups Glucose Ring Form - Including the numbering, from 1 to 6, of the carbon ring and the locations (either above or below the molecular plane) of the “–OH” groups in both the Alpha and Beta forms. ALPHA
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This note was uploaded on 11/02/2008 for the course BILD 1 taught by Professor Unk during the Spring '08 term at UCSB.

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study_guide_midterm_1 - CHAPTER 2: Atoms: atomic #, valence...

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