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ta study guide test 1 ch 1-6

ta study guide test 1 ch 1-6 - BILD 1(BEVER Section...

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BILD 1 (BEVER) Section: Sharleen, M 2-2:50pm Chapter 3: Water & the Fitness of the Environment Facts… -Water naturally in all three physical states of matter: solid, liquid and gas. -Water polar - 4 Emergent Properties of water 1. Cohesion 2. Moderation of Temperature 3. Insulation of bodies of water by floating ice 4. The solvent of life I Cohesion A. Definition: the binding together of like molecules due to hydrogen bonding B. Purpose: contributes to the transport of water and dissolved nutrients against gravity in plants. I Adhesion A. Definition: the clinging of one substance to another (the attraction between different kinds of molecules) B. Purpose: adhesion of water to the walls of the cells helps counter the downward pull of gravity. I Moderation of Temperature A. Water has high specific heat (Specific heat = amount of heat absorbed or lost for 1.0g of that substance to change its temperature by 1C) B. Water has a high heat of vaporization meaning the quantity of heat a liquid must absorb for 1.0g of it to be converted from the liquid to the gas state. C. Basically, it’s hard to change the temperature of water or make it boil which is important for highly temperature sensitive bodily functions I Water is one of the only a few substances that is less dense as a solid than as a liquid . This fact is important in that is ice were more dense than its liquid water form, ice would sink which would eventually cause all bodies of water to freeze, causing life as we know it cease to exist, I Water is the solvent of life . A. Due to water’s molecular polarity, it easily attracts other polar molecules and therefore is considered a very good solvent (i.e. found in blood, lymph, etc.) B. When talking about solubility, the dissolving agent of a solution is the solvent, and the substance that is dissolved is the solute. C. Molarity = number of moles of solute per liter of solution-unit of concentration (Ex: 1 M per liter) Acid/Base I Acid : a substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution. I Base : is a substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution, I pH : is a measure of hydrogen ion concentration and is equal to –log[H+] and, ranges from 0-14, where a pH of 0-7 is acidic and 7-14 is basic I Buffers : are substances that minimize changes in the concentrations of H+ and OH- in solution. Chapter 4: Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life h Organic compound = a compound which contains carbon A. 6 Major Elements of Life = carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus
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B. Carbon can form 4 bonds: i. C has 4 electrons in its valence shell, and therefore can form 4 covalent bonds to reach a full valence of 8 ii. The ability of carbon to form four bonds makes the formation of a great diversity of molecules possible B. C can form single, double, or triple bonds
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ta study guide test 1 ch 1-6 - BILD 1(BEVER Section...

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