Unformatted text preview: ANAR 111:
Foundations of Archaeology The Growth of a Discipline Lecture 2: Archaeology the study of the human past through its material remains. Goals of Archaeology 1. Reveal the form of the past: the description and classification of the physical evidence that is recovered 2. to discover Function: by analyzing the form and interrelationships of recovered evidence, to determine the ancient behavior represented by the physical remains. 3. To understand cultural processes: by using the remains of ancient cultures to explain how and why they changed through time 4. To derive meaning from the archaeological record. Archaeology as a Science: Scientific Method Is Archaeology as Science? Archaeology and History History deals primarily with written records from the past. Archaeology deals primarily with the physical remains.
Historical Archaeology Prehistorical Archaeology Anthropology Is the comprehensive science of humankind the study of the biological, social, and cultural form and variation in both time and space. Diachronic Synchronic US-Four Field Approach SocioCultural Anthropology Biological Anthropology Linguistics Archaeology
Holistic: the idea that all the properties of a given system (biological, chemical, social, economic, mental, linguistic, etc.) cannot be determined or explained by the sum of its component parts alone. Instead, the system as a whole determines in an important way how the parts behave. Biological Anthropology (Physical Anthropology) Seeks to understand the physical human being through the study of human evolution and adaptability, population genetics, and primatology. Socio-cultural Anthropology
Is the investigation, often through long term, intensive field studies of the culture and social organization of a particular people:
language economic and political organization law and conflict resolution patterns of consumption and exchange kinship and family structure gender relations childrearing and socialization religion, mythology, symbolism, etc. Linguistic Anthropology processes of human communications, verbal and nonverbal, variation in language across time and space the social uses of language, relationship between language and culture. Archaeology The study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains and environmental data, including Architecture Artifacts Ecofacts Human remains Landscapes Types of Archaeology Classical Archaeology Historical Archaeology Underwater Archaeology Prehistoric Archaeology Prehistoric Archaeology Early Prehistory The emergence of Homo Sapien Sapiens Peopling of the Globe by Modern Humans The Origins of Food Production Egalitarian to State Level Societies Human Culture Anthropology is unified by one common thread: The Concept of Culture The concept of culture provides a framework that archaeology can use to both describe and explain the prehistoric past. Culture - Defined `that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society' Sir Edward Taylor (Victorian Anthropologist) Culture-Non genetic adaptaion 1. the technological (relationships with the environment) 2. the Social (organization systems) 3. the ideational (belief system) The Origins of Archaeology Classification and Form `Explanations' Function and Explanation: The Rise of Professionals Causality Origins Early Accounts Dark Ages RenaissanceThe Birth of Antiquarians Classifiers William Camden John Aubrey William Stukeley Ole Worm Johan Bure William Dugdale Professional Archaeology 19th Century Growing body of evidence Refinements in methods Collection and Classification continued Explanation and Interpretation The Problem of Interpretation Analogy The Birth of Anthropology ...
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