Lecture 05 The Structure of Archaeological Data

Lecture 05 The - Archaeological Data The Nature of Archaeological Data Approaches to Archaeological Data Gathering Forms Artifacts Features

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Unformatted text preview: Archaeological Data The Nature of Archaeological Data Approaches to Archaeological Data Gathering Forms Artifacts Features Ecofacts Sites Region Determinants Behavioral and Transformational Processes Middle Range Theory Determinants (Continued) Evaluating Context Primary (undisturbed) Use-related Use Transposed Matrix: physical medium that surrounds, holds, and supports the Matrix: archaeological material. Provenience: a 3-D location (horizontal and vertical position on or Provenience: 3within the matrix) at which the archaeologist finds data. Association: two or more archaeological items (artifacts, ecofacts, Association: or features) occurring together, usually within the same matrix. Context: interpretation of the significance of an artifact's deposition Context: artifact' in terms of its matrix, provenience, and association. Secondary (disturbed) Use-related Use Natural 1 Primary Context Primary (undisturbed) Use-related UseResulting from abandonment of materials during acquisition, manufacture, or use activities. Secondary Context Secondary (disturbed) Use-related: UseResulting from disturbances by human activity after original deposition of material Transposed Resulting from depositional activities, such as midden formation Natural: Resulting from natural disturbances such as erosion and animal and plant activity Approaches to Archaeological Data Gathering Area of Investigation Time Space Sample Units Arbitrary Spatial divisions with no inherent natural or cultural relevance Nonarbitrary Correspond to natural areas or to cultural areas 2 Total Data Gathering Sample Data Gathering Sampling Two Types Probabilistic Non-probabilistic Non- Non-probabilistic Sampling Informal Criteria Sixth Sense Gut Feeling Skill of the Investigator 3 Probabilistic Sampling Simple random Systematic Stratified Stratified unaligned systematic ANGR 111 Foundations of Archaeology Lecture 6 Research Design and Mapping Exercise The Scope of Research Theoretical Scientist Methodologist Technician Administrator Research Projects Short Duration CRM Large-Scale Large Complex Societies Small-Scale Small- 4 Research Design Formulating a Plan Implementation of Research Data Gathering Data Processing Analysis of Data Interpretation of Data Publication Formulation of Research Formulating a Plan Research Problems Background Investigations Refining Problems Setting Goals Formulating Hypotheses Implementation of Research Procure Permissions Raise Funds Logistic Arrangements Data Gathering Surface Sub-Surface Sub Archaeological Reconnaissance Direct Observation Remote Sensing 5 Data Processing Collecting Processing Cleaning Numbering Cataloguing Preserving storage Analysis of Data Total No. of Vessels (N=952) Typological Classification Form Function Age Material Fig ure 7: Khirbet en-Nahas: Vess el types 3 50 31 7 3 00 2 50 24 6 2 00 1 50 10 8 1 00 96 78 59 50 15 0 P ot S po ut gl et B ow l/C up D isk Fl as k K ra La m p ge Fl as k B ow l in er C up Ju ed Ju V at Fur nac e 6 0 .0 0 0 4 9 .0 4 1 4 5 .1 4 5 3 8 .9 4 0 4 0 .0 0 0 35.025 2 8 .6 8 5 22.020 2 0 .0 0 0 3 1 .0 7 5 5 0 .4 6 0 Tuy er e 13 6 3 3 2 2 1 Li d 1 1 1 g r r Ja Ja te r am ic S tra ra ng rim C er Ves sel Types T u y e r e P ip e a n d F u r n a c e Fr a g m e n t W e ig h t s b y P r o d u c t io n L a y e r 1 2 0 .0 0 0 1 0 3 .5 0 5 1 0 0 .0 0 0 8 0 .0 0 0 7 7 .9 3 5 1 . 0 3 5 1 .4 7 5 0 .0 0 0 La y er 1 Lay e r 2 Lay er 3 La y er 4 Lay e r 5 Lay er 6 Interpretation of Data Synthesis of all results Explanatory Models for Iron Age State Evolution in the Levant Models Social Evolutionary Models based on Sahlin's and Service Band > Tribe> Chiefdom> State (cf. Holladay 2003; Dever 2003) Secondary State Formation (cf. Joffe 2002) Weberian Patrimonial States (cf. Schloen 2001, Master 2001) Segmentary States (cf. Routledge 2000) Tribal State Formation (cf. LaBianca and Younker 2003; Bienkowski and van der Steen 2001; Levy in press) Publication of Results P ilg S po ut S to C oo ki 6 Mapping in Archaeology Title Compas Rose Cardinal Directions North South East West Site Map 1 Symbols Map Key or Legend Site Map 2 Site Map 3 and 4 7 Regional Map Site Map 6 Regional Map Topographic Map 8 Regional Map- Cross-Section 9 ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/02/2008 for the course BILD 1 taught by Professor Unk during the Spring '08 term at UCSB.

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