AP p.5 front.pdf - r 106 Subject The topic of a text What...

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Unformatted text preview: r‘” 106. Subject — The topic of a text. What the text is about. Lou Gehrig’s subject in his speech is his illness, but it is also an expression of his gratitude for all of the lucky breaks that preceded his diagnosis. “" 107. Syllogism — A logical structure that uses the major premise and minor premise to reach a necessary conclusion. a. Major Premise: Exercise contributes to better health. b. Minor Premise: Yoga is a type of exercise. 0. Conclusion: Yoga contributes to better health. 108. Synecdoche — Figure of speech that uses a part to represent the whole. In your hands, my fellow citizens, more than mine, will rest the final success or failure of our course. — John F. Kennedy 109. Syntax — The arrangement of words into phrases, clauses, and sentences. This includes word order (subject-verb—object, for instance, or an inverted structure); the length and structure of sentences (simple, compound, complex, or compound—complex); and such schemes as parallelism, juxtaposition, antithesis, and antimetabole. » 110. Synthesize — combining two or more ideas in order to create something more complex in support of a new idea. ~ _ 111. Text — While this term generally means the written word, in the humanities it has come to mean any cultural product that can be “rea ” — meaning not just consumed and comprehended, but investigated. This includes fiction, non-fiction, poetry, political cartoons, fine art, photography, performances, fashion, cultural trends, and much more. a, 112. Tone — A speaker’s attitude toward the subject conveyed by the speaker’s stylistic and rhetorical choices. 113 Toulmin model - An approach to analyzing and constructing arguments created by British philosopher Stephen Toulmin in his book The Uses of Arggment (1958). The Toulmin model can be stated as a template: Because (evidence as support), therefore (claim), since (warrant or assumption), on account of (backing), unless (reservation). Because it is raining, therefore I should probably take my umbrella, since it will keep me dry on accouni ofiis waterproof material, unless, of course, there is a hole in ii. 1"“"1 14. Understatement — A figure of speech in which something is presented as less important, dire, urgent, good, and so on, than it actually is, often for satiric or comical effect. Also called litotes, it is the opposite of hyperbole. You might want to write clearly and cogenily in your English class. The night in prison was novel and interesting enough. — Henry David Thoreau " 115. Warrant — In the Toulmin model, the warrant expresses the assumption necessarily shared by the speaker and the audience. as“ 116. Wit f In rhetoric, the use of laughter, humor, irony, and satire in the continuation or refutation of an argument. “ - 1 17. Zeugma — Use of two different words, in a grammatically similar way that produces different, often incongruous, meanings. When you open a book, you open your mind. Now the trumpet summons us again — not as a call to bear arms, though arms we need — not as a call to battle, though embattled we are m but a call to bear the burden... — John F. Kennedy ...
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