15 - Aging Measurement Transition

15 - Aging Measurement Transition - SOCI 121: Population...

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SOCI 121: Population Problems A GING : C ONCEPTUALIZATION , M EASUREMENT , AND T RANSITION Objectives: Discuss the conceptualization of aging in demography Discuss the Age Transition Explain how changes in fertility, mortality, and migration can impact the age structure Explain how changes in the age structure can impact the major demographic processes Class Notes: Population Growth and Population Structure Discussions of population growth often make it seem as though population increases evenly throughout the population. o But we know that the dynamic population processes – mortality, fertility, and migration differ by age and sex – these processes affect not only the size, but also the composition, of the population. o Predictable changes occur in the distribution of a population by age and sex as a society goes through the demographic transition. This age transition represents a shift away from a very young population in which there are slightly more males than females to an older population in which there are more females than males. In between, fluctuations in the age and sex structure represent powerful forces for social, economic, and political change – and a source of demographic change as well. In general, it is the interaction of fertility, mortality, and migration that produces the age and sex structure , which can be viewed as a key to the life of a social group. Population processes not only produce the age and sex structure but are, in turn, affected by it. The Age Transition The age transition is a predictable shift from a predominantly younger population when fertility is high (usually when mortality is high) to a predominantly older population when fertility is low (usually when mortality is also low). We know that a premodern world will have high fertility, high mortality, and probably very little in- or out-migration. This is associated with a young population, whereas the “end” of the transition is associated with an older population characterized by low fertility, low mortality, and probably a moderate amount of migration. Each of the three population processes has predictable impacts on the age structure. Both migration and mortality can affect all ages and differentially affect each sex. The impact of fertility is not quite the same, and it is for this reason that changes in fertility tend to have the most dramatic long-term impact on the age structure. Migration has the biggest short-term impact. 1
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SOCI 121: Population Problems The Impact of Declining Mortality Mortality declines affect all ages and both sexes, but in nearly all societies the very youngest and the very oldest ages are most susceptible to death, and in modern societies (where maternal mortality is fairly low), males are more likely than females to die at any given age. o
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This note was uploaded on 11/02/2008 for the course SOCI 121 taught by Professor Lazar during the Fall '07 term at UNC.

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15 - Aging Measurement Transition - SOCI 121: Population...

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